9:20-9:40 Dame Carol Black DBE FRCP FMedSci is Principal of Newnham College, Cambridge University. She has held top positions in medicine and now holds high-level policy advisory positions on health and work in the United Kingdom
Dame Carol Black DBE FRCP FMedSci Principal of Newnham College, Cambridge University. She has held top positions in medicine and now holds high-level policy advisory positions on health and work in the United Kingdom
Kyoko Nomura Director, Support Center for women physicians and researchers, Associate professor, Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Teikyo University, School of Medicine, Associate professor, Teikyo School of Public Health
The current state of female doctors in Japanese Obstetrics and Gynecology
keynote given at the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on women’s development and leadership, Tokyo, Monday 16 May 2016
by: Kiyoko Kato, Professor Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics Graduate School of Medical Sciences Kyushu University
(Summary of Professor Kiyoko Kato’s keynote written by Gerhard Fasol)
Improving medical care in obstetrics and gynecology requires gender equality – higher numbers and higher retention of women medical doctors
18% of medical doctors in Japan in 2008 are female, 82% are male. Back in 1976 only about 10% of medical doctors were female
Medical school: in 1976 about 13% of medical students were women, this ratio increased up to about 35% peaking around the year 2000, and subsequently decreases slowly to around 32% in 2008.
Thus the ratio of women medical doctors are slowly increasing in Japan.
About 90% medical doctors enter employment after graduation, remain employed at that level until about 35 years after graduation, when employment ratios slowly decrease due to retirement.
For women medical doctors, the employment ratio curve is M-shaped, with a minimum at about 76% employment approximately 11 years after graduation, at an age around 36 years, after this minimum many women medical doctors enter employment again, reaching similar employment ratio’s as men about 35 years after graduation.
62% of women medical doctors leaving their employment do this because of pregnancy, child birth or child care (80% in case of women younger than 45 years age).
Obstetrics and gynecology medical doctors older than 40 years are predominantly men, while doctors younger than 40 years are predominantly women
For medical doctors aged 40 years and over, obstetrics and gynecology specialists are predominantly men: women obstetricians and gynecology make up less than 10% of doctors at higher ages.
This ratio is reversed for obstetricians and gynecologists younger than 40 years of age: women outnumber male doctors, below 30 years age, women doctors outnumber men nearly by a factor of 2.
There is a clear trend: older medical doctors in the obstetrics and gynecology field are predominantly male, while below the age of 40 years, women dominate by an increasing ratio.
Kyushu University Hospital: Professor Kiyoko Kato is the one and only woman Full Professor of Medicine
Kyushu University has 135 female doctors, and 81.5% are on part-time contracts, only 18.5% have full time employment.
Ratio of women at different levels of the career pyramid:
Part-time intern doctors: 36.3% are women
Part-time doctors: 30.1% are women
Full-time doctors: 8.6% are women
Assistant Professors: 22 women vs 187 men (11.8% are women)
Lecturers: 1 single woman vs 48 men (2%)
Associate Professors: 1 single woman vs 31 men (3%)
Full Professors: 1 single woman vs 24 men = Professor Kiyoko Kato (4%)
Only one single woman has achieved promotion into each of the higher ranks of Lecturer, Associate Professor and Full Professor, indicating that any women at all in these higher academic medical Professor ranks are rare exceptions rather than the rule (no mention here of still higher ranks, such as Hospital Directors, Deans, Heads of Department, or University President).
Professor Kiyoko Kato then explained her own career, where she spent time studying in the USA, gave birth to her first child in the USA, and then to her second child after returning to Japan. She had to cope with several challenges, e.g where one of the hospitals she worked was shut down. Finally Professor Kiyoko Kato was appointed Full Professor at Kyushu University Medical School.
Professor Kiyoko Kato proposes that three issues need to be solved:
improve the work environment during pregnancy and child bearing
re-integration assistance: re-education and support after leave of absence
remove obstacles to career improvements
Improve the work environment during pregnancy and child bearing: the “Kyushu University Perinatal period cradle net project” 「周産期ゆりかごネットプロジェクト」
As the websites show, the “Kyushu University Perinatal period cradle net project” is carefully designed, structured and provides a depth of support for women medical doctors to give birth and pursue their career. Women doctors are given part-time positions in the out patient department after returning from leaves of absence.
So far seven women doctors have taken advantage of this program, and several have been assisted to return to full or part-time employment, two are still absent because of a second pregnancy. Part-time work in the outpatient department assisted them to return back to full time employment. Experiencing the hospital as a patient during birth also provided valuable experience.
Re-integration assistance: re-education and support after leave of absence. The Kyushu University Kirameki Project.
To support re-integration after absence, Kyushu University created the “Kirameki Project” (Kirameki = glitter, shine). The Kirameki Projekt is described on the website here: https://www.kyudai-kirameki.com/
2007-2009 the Kirameki Project helped female medical workers, female doctors, dentists and nurses to re-integrate after leave of absence.
From 2010 the program (“Kyushu University Hospital Kirameki Project”) was expanded to support continuation of the career for doctors, dental doctors, nurses for both men and women, because of delivery, child care, or disease / medical leave.
The aims of the project are to promote women doctors, dentists, and nurses who would have to resign their positions due to family reasons including marriage, children, husband’s job transfer etc, and to help them pursue their career after marriage.
Activities of the Kirameki Project are:
survey the problems of women doctors, dentists and nurses after marriage
recruit qualified but “hibernating” female medical personnel
promote “high spirits”, encourage
on the job training in the out-patient department
Structured programs of the Kirameki Project:
Administrative: refresher program
Reestablishment: getting back to work program
Suspension/leave: web based education
Medical specialist: continuing specialist medical education
Marriage, child-care: continuing education
Residents, newcomer nurses: basic training
Students: gender equality education
Remove obstacles to career improvements
Assist women researchers after child birth and during child rearing: support attending international conferences, support system for hiring research assistants and technicians for research support.
Construct a support system:
Return support after child-care leave: day nursery, team medical care including emergency mutual help system, flexible working time, e.g. 9-5 work day
Improvement of career: system of supporting female researchers during child bearing and child rearing, grants for female researchers to support technicians
Professor Kiyoko Kato’s wishes and expectations for female doctors
responsibility and awareness
gratitude to all who helped
contribution to medical progress
(Summary of Professor Kiyoko Kato’s keynote written by Gerhard Fasol)
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership – workshop objective
keynote given at the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on women’s development and leadership, Tokyo, 16 May 2016
by Gerhard Fasol PhD CEO, Eurotechnology Japan KK, Board Director, GMO Cloud KK. former faculty Cambridge University, and Trinity College, and Tokyo University
Objectives for the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s Development and Leadership
There are two immediate objectives for the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s Development and Leadership:
empower women leaders with global leverage
lets change mind sets
I am building the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum as global leadership platform honoring my great-grandfather, and the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s Development and Leadership is part if this initiative:
drive innovation based on science and technology
“there is no other forum for open discussions among leaders in Japan other than the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum” (said one of Japan’s top technology leaders, former Board Director of Japan’s largest Telecommunications Operator, former President of a large University, and former President of one of Japan’s most important technology organizations)
and as an additional bonus we will create new cooperations and new initiatives.
Japanese women leaders forum – my actions so far
Several confidential preparations with Japanese Ministry officials and foreign Embassies in Japan.
One key conclusion from preparations: top priority and most difficult is to change mindsets in Japan regarding empowering women and gender issues
Next step is today’s (16 May 2016) “Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership”.
How to change mindsets? Expand the solution space and add new dimensions!
The basic issues, empowering women and men to combine child care and professional development, work towards greater equality and improving decision making by implementing diversity of decision makers are similar all over the world, especially in Europe and Japan.
Learning solutions from each other, expands the dimensionality of the solution space.
When we are looking for solutions to solve difficult problems, our search for solutions is limited by our experience, knowledge and imagination. Our search for solutions is in space of limited dimensionality. In many cases solutions exist outside the space we are considering.
Therefore to reach better solutions, its necessary to expand this solution space. Looking how other countries solve similar problems is one straight forward way to expand the dimensionality of the solution space, and that is where the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum aims to contribute.
As an example, many people in Japan do not know that most European countries have a Family Ministry (家族省), which represents Families at the Cabinet level. In fact, most Japanese people I have been discussing this issue with are perplexed by the possibility of a Family Ministry (家族省), and usually in response ask, what the tasks of a Family Ministry would be.
If your country does not have a Family Ministry, if you have never heard about a Family Ministry, its difficult to come up with the proposal to create a Family Ministry, and its difficult to imagine what a Family Ministry should do.
At the same time, in today’s internet age, its in theory only a click away to have a look at a Family Ministry: here is the webpage of Austria’s Family Ministry: Das Österreichische “Bundesministerium für Familien und Jugend” (The Austrian Federal Ministry for families and youth, オーストリア連邦家族・青年省)
And here is the current Austrian Minister for Family and Youth, Dr. Sophie Karmasin. 49 years old, with two children, Dr Sophie Karmasin has achieved a Doctorate in Psychology on “consumer behavior in the health market”, from 1993 to 2013, for 13 years she has pursued a very successful career in industry, most recently as Managing Director/CEO of a major market research company, before becoming party independent Minister of Family and Youth. She is not affiliated with any political party, but independent politician since 2013.
Expanding the solution space: wouldn’t it be better to have at least one woman on a committee promoting women’s empowerment?
Why did today’s Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership happen? Because of Trinity College Cambridge
At a recent event of Trinity College Cambridge in Hong Kong, I met with Dame Carol Black, and our meeting led to today’s Forum.
Trinity College was founded By King Henry VIII in 1546 by combining the two older colleges King’s Hall and Michael House and seven Hostels. Sir Isaac Newton worked at Trinity College and about 32 Nobel Prize winners are or were members of Trinity College. Trinity College is part of the University of Cambridge
Ludwig Boltzmann and women’s development and leadership
1872 Ludwig Boltzmann met Henriette von Aigentler (my great-grandmother), who was refused permission to unofficially audit lectures at Graz University, where Ludwig Boltzmann later became University President. Ludwig Boltzmann advised her to appeal, in 1874 Henriette passed the exam as high-school teacher, and on 17 July 1876, Ludwig Boltzmann and Henriette von Aigentler married.
One of Ludwig Boltzmann’s students is Lise Meitner (November 1878 – 27 October 1968). She was only the second woman to be awarded a PhD in Physics from the University of Vienna. Later she was part of the team that discovered nuclear fission, Otto Hahn was awarded the Nobel Prize for this work. Element No. 109, Meitnerium, is named after Lise Meitner.
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership – outlook and next steps
Lets build the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on women’s development and leadership together
Lets empower women leaders
Lets change mind sets
Lets build the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum into a global leadership platform based on science and logic
lets expand the solution space for important problems, and work towards implementing these solutions
16:10-16:40 Gerhard Fasol (CEO , Eurotechnology Japan KK, Board Director, GMO Cloud KK. former faculty Cambridge University and past Fellow, Trinity College Cambridge) Entropy and information and Ludwig Boltzmann
16:50-17:20 Kyoko Nomura (Director, Support Center for women physicians and researchers, Associate professor, Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Teikyo University, School of Medicine, Associate professor, Teikyo School of Public Health) Gender inequality in Japan: a case report of women doctors
Director, Support Center for women physicians and researchers,
Associate professor, Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Teikyo University, School of Medicine,
Associate professor, Teikyo School of Public Health
He graduated from High School, passing the Austrian High School examination “Matura” in 1863, at the age of 19 years.
Two years later, in 1865, Ludwig Boltzmann published his first scientific publication at the age of 21:
“Über die Bewegung der Elektrizität in krummen Flächen” (Electricity on curved surfaces), Wien. Ber. 52, p214-221 (1865).
About 20% of Ludwig Boltzmann’s work was about electro-magnetism, Maxwell had developed the Maxwell’s equations just a few years earlier, 1861-1962. (In Japan’s context, Tokyo Dentou KK received the license to build the first electricity generation and distribution system in Tokyo on February 15, 1883, it was the time when electrical lighting was starting to replace gas lighting, and in parallel scientific work on electricity and magnetism advanced).
Ludwig Boltzmann built mechanical models to understand, visualize and teach Maxwell’s equations. These models have recently been rebuilt and can be seen for example at the University of Graz.
Ludwig Boltzmann’s teachers include:
proposed structures for 300 chemical compounds, including benzene
determined the number of gas molecules in a given volume
the Loschmidt constant is named after Josef Loschmidt
created the Stefan-Boltzmann Radiation Law together with Ludwig Boltzmann
was the first to determine the temperature of the sun
Ludwig Boltzmann: timeline
1865, age 21: first publication: “Electricity on curved surfaces”
1867-1869, age 23-25: Privat-Dozent
1869, age 25: Full Professor in Graz “Mathematical Physics”
1873, age 29: Full Professor in Wien “Mathematics”
1875, age 31: declined offer of Professorship in Zurich and Freiburg
1876, age 32: marriage, Full Professor Graz, Head of Physics Institute
1887-1888, age 43-44: Rektor (President) University Graz
1888, age 44: March: offered Professorship in Berlin, June: declined Professorship
1890, age 46: Professor in München (students include the later First President of the University of Osaka, Hantaro)
1894, age 50: Professor in Wien
1900-1902, age 56-58: Professor of Theoretical Physics in Leipzig
1902, age 58: Professor in Wien
September 5, 1906, age 62, died in Duino, Italy
Ludwig Boltzmann visited the USA three times:
Ludwig Boltzmann’s support for women professionals and scientists
1872 Ludwig Boltzmann met Henriette von Aigentler. She was refused permission to unofficially audit lectures at Graz University.
Ludwig Boltzmann advised her to appeal, and in 1874 Henriette passes the exam as high-school teacher.
On July 17, 1876, Ludwig Boltzmann and Henriette von Aigentler marry. They have four children:
1881: Arthur Ludwig (my grand-father)
Lise Meitner (Nov 1878 – 27 October 1968)
Ludwig Boltzmann’s student Lise Meitner was later part of the team that discovered nuclear fission, for which Otto Hahn was awarded the Nobel Prize.
Lise Meitner was the 2nd woman ever to earn a Doctorate in Physics from the University of Vienna.
Element 109 is named Meitnerium to honor Lise Meitner.
Nagaoka Hantaro, Ludwig Boltzmann’s pupil in München (1892-1893)
Nagaoka Hantaro (1865-1950) was Ludwig Boltzmann’s pupil in München around 1892-1893.
Nagaoka Hantaro was Professor at the University of Tokyo 1901-1925, and among his pupils was Hideki Yukawa.
1931-1934, Nagaoka Hantaro was the first President of the University of Osaka.
Ludwig Boltzmann as angel investor: supported aviation
Ludwig Boltzmann was a frequent traveler, usually by train, and to the USA by ship, so he understood the market for transportation, and supported several ventures to develop aircraft. He wrote an article “Über Luftschifffahrt” in 1894. He supported:
Otto Lilienthal, Berlin
Wilhelm Kreis, Wien
Hiram S Maxim, an American engineer in the UK
Ludwig Boltzmann countered the view that engines heavier than air cannot fly, and argued for funding of applied research.
Ludwig Boltzmann traveled widely, was in intense scientific interaction with most major scientists of his time, both at conferences, as well as by exchanging letters.
Ludwig Boltzmann moved frequently between positions, motivated both by increased responsibilities, close interaction with colleagues, e.g. Ostwald in Leipzig, and also in the interest of increasing his income for the benefit of his family.
So much for a short overview of Ludwig Boltzmann’s life as an introduction to the 8th Ludwig Boltzmann Forum in Tokyo, to illustrate Ludwig Boltzmann’s wide range of interests, his frequent travels, and his actions beyond his fields of Physics, Philosophy and Mathematics.
Shuji Nakamura, Nobel Prize in Physics 2014, Professor, University of California, Santa Barbara and Co-founder of Soraa
Shuji Nakamura: bottom-up innovation, not top-down innovation.
keynote talk given at the 8th Ludwig Boltzmann Forum at the Embassy of Austria, Tokyo, Thursday 18 February 2016
by Shuji Nakamura, Nobel Prize in Physics 2014, Professor, University of California, Santa Barbara and Co-founder of Soraa
(summary of Shuji Nakamura’s talk written by Gerhard Fasol)
Shuji Nakamura is born on 22 May 1954 in Ohku, part of the village Yotsuhamamura (四ツ浜村, 4290 inhabitants) (日本 愛媛県西宇和郡四ツ浜村大久) on the Western side of Shikoku Island (四国, 4.2 million inhabitants), went to Elementary School and High School in Ozu (大洲), not far away, also on the Western side of Shikoku, studied at Tokushima University, which at that time did not have a Physics Department (Shuji Nakamura later won the Nobel Prize in Physics!), and then entered Nichia Chemical Industries in 1979 after graduating from the University of Tokushima. Nichia Chemical Industries is located in Anan, about 20 km south of Tokushima.
Until moving to the University of California in Santa Barbara, Shuji Nakamura spent his whole life, education, University, and professional work as researcher at Nichia entirely on the Island of Shikoku, with no connection to Tokyo, to Government, or Japan’s establishment, or research establishment.
Shuji Nakamura’s lack of connections to Japan’s establishment, industrial establishment, academic establishment or government establishment maybe at the origin of the many misunderstandings which have developed between Shuji Nakamura and Japan’s media, and some of Japan’s establishment.
Thus Shuji Nakamura is the perfect example of bottom-up innovation. Not planned from the top. Therefore maybe its hard for people at the top to grasp and accept.
Shuji Nakamura and his inventions have huge impact on the world, it is hard for Government and main stream media to accept, that Shuji Nakamura does not fit at all into planned top-down innovation, but has created his own independent path.
The contrast between Shuji Nakamura’s bottom-up innovation – recognized and rewarded by the Nobel Prize in Physics – and the official views of top-down innovation seems to have led to many misunderstandings. Shuji Nakamura is making much effort, including today’s talk at the 8th Ludwig Boltzmann Forum, to clear up these misunderstandings.
Invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes vs. development of manufacturing technologies
In an interview for the Japanese Mainichi-Shinbun, the Chairman of the Nobel Prize Committee in Physics, Professor Per Delsing summarized the key discoveries of each Nobel Laureate from the point of view of the Nobel Prize Committee in Physics:
Isamu Akasaki: High quality GaN with AlN buffer
Hiroshi Amano: Demonstration of GaN pn junction
Shuji Nakamura: Many contributions to achieve a practical level of high efficient blue LEDs
The discovery of blue GaN LEDs is a discovery in the field of Physics achieved by three people, their contributions are:
Isamu Akasaki and Hiroshi Amano
AlN buffer (to grow AlN of sufficient quality on a substrate of a different material)
p-GaN by electron beam irradiation
realization of GaN pn homo-junction
GaN buffer (to grow GaN of sufficient quality on a substrate of a different material)
p-GaN by thermal annealing and the theoretical clarification of the mechanism for p-type conductivity
the invention of InGaN-based high brightness double-heterostructure blue LEDs (the Nobel Prize was given to the invention of this LED)
The Nobel Prize Committee awarded the Nobel Prize to Shuji Nakamura for many contributions and inventions to achieve a practical level of high efficient blue LEDs
In his will, Alfred Nobel writes:
“The whole of my remaining realizable estate shall be dealt with in the following way: the capital, invested in safe securities by my executors, shall constitute a fund, the interest on which shall be annually distributed in the form of prizes to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind. The said interest shall be divided into five equal parts, which shall be apportioned as follows: one part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery or invention within the field of physics;…”
It is perfectly clear from Alfred Nobel’s will, the Nobel Prize Committee awards Nobel Prizes in Physics for “the most important discoveries or inventions within the field of physics” – not for the development of manufacturing technologies.
Why is it that Japan’s major Government Organizations and media present a narrative of the LED invention which is opposite to the views of the Nobel Prize Committee and the scientific community outside Japan?
Shuji Nakamura expresses his frustration that the clear explanations of the Nobel Prize Committee’s reasons are not understood by Japanese Media, and many others.
It appears to Shuji Nakamura that there seems to be a widespread misunderstanding of who invented what, and who was awarded the Nobel Prize for what.
Japanese media (Yomiuri Shinbun and others), NHK (e.g. in the Science ZERO program), Japan’s New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization NEDO in their publications, Japan’s Science and Technology Agency JST, Japan’s Science Council JSC, Japan’s Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, all present a picture of the LED inventions which is opposite to the clear statements by the Nobel Prize Committee.
They all write that Professor Akasaka and Amano developed the blue LED in 1989 at Nagoya University, while Shuji Nakamura developed the manufacturing technology in 1993. Such a narrative fits well with a top-down picture, where Professors at Nagoya University make the scientific breakthrough, which is then transferred to industry, where an industrial researcher develops the manufacturing applications, which then the company commercializes.
This top-down narrative would fit well the top-down view of innovation, however this is not how the breakthrough invention of GaN LEDs and lasers, which are now leading to the global lighting revolution actually happened.
Shuji Nakamura explains the essential steps leading to the invention and development of high intensity GaN LEDs
Professor Akasaka and Amano developed homo-junction LEDs, which are very inefficient and show very dim light emission
Professors Akasaki and Amano developed methods to produced n-type and p-type GaN and grew homo-junction GaN LEDs, which emit light, but which are highly inefficient, and the light emission is very dim. Still, this discovery was a crucial step forward, and Akasaka and Amano were awarded shares of the Nobel Prize for these important developments.
For tunable colors, high output power an efficient device structure, and many other developments were necessary, which Shuji Nakamura achieved.
A crucial step forward was the development of heterostructure LEDs, where electrons and holes are confined in quantum wells formed by hetero-junctions, yielding higher efficiencies. Double heterostructures were invented by Z I Alferov and H Kroemer, who were awarded shares of the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics for these and other inventions.
A series of inventions led to efficient blue LEDs:
p-type GaN activated by electron beam irradiation (Akasaki & Amano, 1989)
AlN buffer (Akasaki & Amano, 1985)
GaN buffer (Nakamura, 1991)
InGaN emitting active layer (Nakamura and Mukai, 1992)
p-type GaN activated by thermal annealing. Hydrogen passivation was clarified as the origin of hole compensation (Nakamura at al, 1992)
Shuji Nakamura’s development of hydrogen free annealing of p-type GaN and the development of InGaN heterostructure lead to the breakthrough development of high brightness InGaN LEDs for blue emission
A particularly important discovery by Shuji Nakamura in 1992 was to find out why p-type GaN could not be efficiently produced previous to this invention. Shuji Nakamura found out that previous researchers had all annealed p-type GaN in hydrogen (H+) atmosphere, which passivated the p-GaN, making it useless for electronic devices.
Shuji Nakamura invented the method to anneal p-type GaN in a hydrogen-free atmosphere which for the first time allowed the production of proper p-type GaN layers.
This in 1994, Shuji Nakamura could report the first high brightness InGaN LEDs for blue emission, S. Nakamura et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, (1994) 1687-1689.
It is a misunderstanding to emphasize only Shuji Nakamura’s developments of manufacturing technologies, and to forget about Shuji Nakamura’s many inventions in the field of physics for which he was awarded his share in the Nobel Prize in Physics
Had Shuji Nakamura developed “only” manufacturing techniques, Shuji Nakamura would certainly not have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. Shuji Nakamura was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for a long string of discoveries and developments in the field of physics, in addition to developing a wide range of manufacturing technologies as well, such as the two-flow MOCVD equipment.
What is an LED? How to produce energy efficient white light?
A light emitting diode (LED) produces light of a single color corresponding to the energy difference of electrons and holes recombining across the bandgap in a semiconductor LED device.
By choosing different materials, LEDs emitting light of different colors can be produced. To produce white light, the light emitted by several different LEDs of different color can be combined, e.g. blue + yellow, or blue + yellow + red.
Another option to produce white light is to coat a blue light emitting LED with phosphor, where the phosphor converts part of the blue light into yellow light. The remaining blue light combined with the yellow light emitted by the phosphor appears white to the human eye.
Conventional white LEDs, consisting of blue LEDs covered by phosphor, show strong blue light emission, and disrupt the human circadian cycle and possibly suppresses melatonin (see: Narusawa et al, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43 (2010) 354002).
Most PCs, laptop, smartphone and tablet liquid crystal displays use such white LEDs for the background lighting, cause eye fatigue, and thus filters can be used to cut the blue light.
Nagoya University has a very interesting Academic Charter (名古屋大学学術憲章), which lays out the fundamental objectives and policies.
Nagoya University’s Academic Charter (名古屋大学学術憲章) emphasizes a free and vibrant academic culture (自由闊達な学風), the cultivation of courageous intellectuals endowed with powers of rational thought and creativity (論理的思考力と想像力に富んだ勇気ある知識人).
Interestingly the fundamental objectives emphasize international cooperation – with emphasis on Asian nations (とりわけアジア諸国と).
Nagoya University guarantees freedom of academic research (学問の自由) and aspires to be an accessible University ((開かれた大学).
Question 1: Can we foster a “brave heart” by education? (勇気は教育で生み出すことができるものか？)
Inspired by Nelson Mandela: courage is not the absence of fear, but the triumph over fear, conquering fear. Education is the most powerful weapon to change the world. （私は学んだ。勇気とは恐怖を知らない事ではなく、それに打ち勝つところにあるのだと。勇者とは怖れを知らない人間ではなく、怖れを克服する人間の事なのだと。）
We want to educate courageous individuals endowed with powers of rational thought and creativity. (論理的思考力と創造力に富んだ勇気ある知識人）
Question 2: Can we foster “innovative talent” by education? (イノベーティブな才能は教育で生み出すことができるものか？)
Fluid intelligence (閃きの知性): is the ability to think an reason abstractly and to solve problems. Fluid intelligence is thought to be independent of learning, experience and education.
Crystallized intelligence (結晶化する知性): comes from prior learning and past experience. Crystallized experience typically grows with age.
When we look at the age at which Nobel Prize winners have done their prize winning work, we see a broad distribution, with a peak around 35-39 years age, with outliers in the 20-24 years age group, and above 60 as well.
Mentors are important: at Nagoya University Nobel Prize Winner Osamu Akasaki has educated and influenced five more Nobel Prize Winners.
Question 3: Is there any culture (soil) that makes innovative talent to blossom out? (イノベーティブな才能を開花させる文化（土壌）は存在すか？)
Frans Johansson examined the “Medici Effect”, the explosion of creativity during the Italian Renaissance period: innovative ideas flourished at the intersection of diverse experiences.
by: Kyoko Nomura, MD, MPH, PhD: Director, Support Center for women physicians and researchers, Associate professor, Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Teikyo University, School of Medicine, and Associate professor, Teikyo School of Public Health
In 2016, Japan’s elderly population, aged 65 years or older, comprises 26%, which is one-fourth of total population. By contrast, the younger generation, aged 0-14 years, comprises only 14%. Why so low?
Nowadays, the birth rate in Japan is estimated at 10.3 per 1,000 population, meaning that one woman bears only one child over her lifetime on average. The Japanese Health Ministry estimates that the nation’s total population will fall to 95.2 million by 2050. The aging of Japan is brought about by a combination of low birthrate and longevity.
Now we understand that Japan faces an aging society. Who is going to take care of this quickly growing aging population? Of course, younger people and women! This is the fundamental reason why women are encouraged to work as much as men to support the aging society.
However in Japan, our traditional gender roles that men should work outside and women be good house wives is strongly embedded in our mindset and hard to get rid of.
According to the Gender Gap Index by the World Economic Forum, Japan ranks at 105th near the bottom among 135 countries in terms of gender equality, mainly due to the underrepresentation of women in economic and political leadership.
In the medical area, Japan faces a physician shortage because the number of physicians per 1000 population is 2.2 which is lower than the average of OECD countries, 3.2 per 1000 population. This means, if you reside in a remote area and suppose you have a cancer, it is less likely to find a medical doctor who can treat your cancer in your neighborhood. Hence, Japan needs higher numbers of medical doctors to meet patients’ needs and definitely women medical doctors are expected to work more to take care of patients.
Actually the number of women entering into medicine is increasing and now constitutes 20% of total number of medical doctors. But this value is still low among OECD countries (actually it is lowest) and thus, we need to set up an urgent strategy to improve working conditions for women to work as much as male counterparts and pursue their potentials as well.
Dr. Nomura conducted a surveys of alumnae from 14 medical schools and found that 98% of men worked in full-time positions, but only 70% of women worked in full time positions, and that men work longer hours per week compared to women. In her another survey with colleagues, they also found that many women quit working at the time of life events like marriage and child birth or rearing; the retirement rate from full-time labour was 44％ in 5 yrs and rose up to 85％ in 10 yrs. To make matters worse, once they switched from full-time to part-time positions, only one third of these people will return to full-time work.
As a consequence, women are underrepresented in medicine. We have 80 medical schools in Japan and each has one dean but there are only 2 women and women constitute only 2.6% of full professors in medicine in Japan, which is far behind of USA (19%) and UK (16%).
Dr. Nomura and her colleagues have recently published an article to the international scientific journal “Surgery” in February 2016 and this epidemiological study based on 8,000 surgeons who are members of the Japan Surgical Society demonstrated that married men earn more than unmarried women after adjusting for covariates including working hours; as the number of children increases, annual income increases only for men but decreases for women.
In another study, she also demonstrated that the length of weekly domestic working hours is much longer for unmarried women than for married men and men do not work at home even if they have children (the average household working hours for men is only 3 hours per week).
These findings suggest that Japan’s stereotypical gender role, where men should work outside and women should be housewives still prevails even among highly qualified professionals like medical doctors.
Dr. Nomura has launched a women support center at her University in 2014 and provides various kinds of support to women researchers and physicians including
to provide a nursery for children including sick children
to provide social support like mentorship
to provide various seminars and workshops on research skills
to promote gender equality campaigns
With these efforts, Teikyo University has successfully increased the numbers and percentages of women faculty members. Dr. Nomura concluded by saying “in order to support women, environmental support at the workplace is not enough, but a combination of workplace support with educational intervention and career development works very well.”
Kyoko Nomura, Teikyo University, Profile
MD, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, April 1987-March 1993
Master of Public Health: Quantitative Methods, Harvard School of Public Health, MA02115, USA, June 2001-June 2002
PhD: Dep. of Hygiene and Public Health, Teikyo University School of Medicine , April 1999-March 2003
Associate professor of Dep. of Hygiene and Public Health and Teikyo University School of Medicine, and Teikyo School of Public Health
Director of Teikyo Support Center for women physicians and researchers
AMED missions start with IRUD: Initiative on Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases – Challenge to overcome Balkanization
keynote talk given at the 8th Ludwig Boltzmann Forum at the Embassy of Austria in Tokyo, Tuesday 18 February 2016
Makoto Suematsu, President, Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development AMED: “The situation in Japan is so crazy, but now I will stay in Japan because I have a mission”
by Makoto Suematsu (President, Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development AMED)
summary written by Gerhard Fasol
Our goal is to fast-track medical R&D that directly benefits people not only by extending life, but also by improving quality of life.
Supporting research in “three different concepts of life”:
quality of life
AMED works with three Japanese Government Ministries: METI & MEXT & MHLW
AMED total budget in FY2015 is US$ 1.4 billion.
The challenge is to combine the efforts of these three Ministries which all have different rules and requirements. It is our job at AMED to overcome this “balkanization” between Ministries, as pointed out by Denis Normile’s article: “Japan’s ‘NIH’ starts with modest funding but high ambitions”, SCIENCE, 348, Issue 6235, pp 616, DOI: 10.1126/science.348.6235.616
Starting with (1) rare diseases and (2) cancer
We are using a matrix approach and start with (1) rare diseases and (2) cancer to trial our approach to optimize medical R&D.
On one axis of the matrix we have:
Regenerative medicine research
Neurological, psychiatric and brain research
Rare/intractable disease research
On the other axis of the matrix we have:
Industrial-academic collaboration: support for practical applications such as industrial-academic collaboration
International affairs: promotion of strategic international research
Genome research and infrastructure: support for accommodating R&D platforms such as BioBank etc
Clinical research and trials: support for high-quality clinical studies/clinical trials
Innovative drug discovery and development: support through the Drug Discovery Support Network for realizing drug discovery in academia
Why did we start from Rare & Undiagnosed Diseases (IRUD) in 2015?
Our aim is to support medical research considering three different types of life
Quality of life
Stop “research for budgets”, empower “budgets for research”
Global data sharing (overcoming researchers’ “biological behavior”)
Diversity of diseases causes fragmental budgets, centralization of expensive analyzing machines
Establishing new matrices to check the quality of projects
Farewell to “Darth Vader-type research”, patients should be covered by network-type systems
Not only diagnosis, but also drug discovery for R and C (attracting great interest by Megapharma for orphan drugs)
Globally shared “death valley”
University vs Medical School & Hospital
Patients’ need vs physicians’ desire
Sequencer vs physicians
Scientists vs bureaucrats
Bureaucrats vs bureaucrats
University vs industry
University vs university
Medicine vs other sciences
SWAN = Syndrome without a name, leading to a diagnostic odyssey
“You have no idea what the future holds for a child. If you don’t have a diagnosis, you don’t know if they’ll ever walk, or talk, or what their life expectancy might be. You spend your whole life going through this constant emotional rollercoaster of test after test coming back negative and no-one being able to give you any answers. They can have their entire genetic code sequenced, but we still can’t find the root of the problem. It’s mainly because it’s such a tiny change in their genetic code that doesn’t get picked up in the tests.”
AMED has launched the Initiative for Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases (IRUD)
We set up IRUD committees at all hub medical institutions building an all-Japan network for IRUD. These IRUD committees build regional alliances bringing together home doctors, IRUD analysis centers for genetic testing, e.g. exome sequencing.
The IRUD committees interact with the IRUD Data Base System for IRUD.
With regional IRUD committees in combination with a central IRUD data base, we can find patients with similar symptoms which might have the same rare disease.
In order to identify a new disease-causing gene which has been unknown as a disease-causing gene, it is necessary to find out multiple patients who have a combination of similar clinical phenotypes and sequence variants in same gene
To decide on Rare (R) and Undiagnosed (U) diseases, we use a series of filters, including global research on multifactorial genetic disorders, and we use IRUD diagnostic committees including a wide range of specialists, clinical conferences with clinical geneticists, and alliances with home doctors.
On January 11, 2016, a Memorandum of Cooperation was signed between NIH and AMED in the guest all of the US National Academy of Science:
empowering historical collaboration in infectious diseases and surveillance
overcoming dementia through strong basic science and brain initiatives
data sharing in rare and undiagnosed diseases
As an example, it was possible to identify patients with corresponding rare genetic diseases both in the USA and Japan.
AMED: Perspectives for fast-track medical R&D to improve global quality of life
Eliminate obstacles of inflexible funding systems caused by “Balkanism” (conflicts of different funding systems by different agencies). AMED has completed de reform of funding rules on January 13, 2016
Help ARO network to fully utilize a flexibel funding system
“Making a little leak will sink a huge old ship”. Start from IRUD:
Global phenotype coding
Central IRB (pilot)
Collaboration with IRDiRC, UDN (NIH) from FY2015
Global alliance for IRUD data sharing and infection surveillance
Activate basic research to foster young “masters” in Japan through activating global collaboration. AMED global partnership: Gero-sciences, structural biology, mass spectrometry, metabolomics, etc.
improve the quality of big data science to evaluate clinical research (eg NCD, JANIS etc)
ONLINE, and IN ENGLISH for Japanese funding systems
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum: 20 February 2015 at the Embassy of Austria in Tokyo
Ludwig Boltzmann discovered many of nature’s laws of energy and entropy, and his leadership has impact even today. We use Ludwig Boltzmann’s laws and mathematical tools every day.
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum: Keynote speakers
Shuji Nakamura Nobel Prize in Physics 2014, Professor, University of California, Santa Barbara. Inventor of blue GaN LEDs and lasers. [summary and discussions]
Gerhard Fasol Physicist, opto-electronics and spin-electronics. CEO, Eurotechnology Japan KK. Board Director of GMO Cloud KK. Served on the Faculty of Tokyo University, Cambrige University, and Trinity College, Cambridge. [summary and discussions]
Chuck Casto Licensed Nuclear Power Station Operator. Was NRC regulator responsible for 23 nuclear power stations. Leader of the US Integrated Government and NRC efforts in Japan during the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011. [summary and discussions]
Hiroyuki Yoshikawa Pioneer of robotics and precision manufacturing. Emeritus President of the University of Tokyo. Japan Prize 1997. [summary and discussions]
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum: Program
14:00 Welcome by Dr. Bernhard Zimburg, Ambassador of Austria to Japan