Gerhard Fasol: Boltzmann constant and the new SI system of units by Gerhard Fasol

Boltzmann constant k, “What is temperature?” and the new definition of the SI system of physical units

Gerhard Fasol

Keynote presented at the 6th Ludwig Boltzmann Symposium on February 20, 2014 at the Embassy of Austria in Tokyo.

Gerhard Fasol: Ludwig Boltzmann
Gerhard Fasol: Ludwig Boltzmann

(by Gerhard Fasol, CEO of Eurotechnology Japan KK. Served as Associate Professor of Tokyo University, Lecturer at Cambridge University, and Manger of Hitachi Cambridge R&D Lab.)

(in preparing this talk, I am very grateful for several email discussions and telephone conversations, and for unpublished presentations and documents, to Dr Michael de Podesta MBE CPhys MInstP, Principal Research Scientist at the National Physical Laboratory NPL in Teddington, UK, who has greatly assisted me in understanding the current status of work on reforming the SI system of units, and also his very important work on high-precision measurements of Boltzmann’s constant. Dr Michael de Podesta’s measurements of Boltzmann’s constant are arguable among the most precise, of not the most precise measurements of Boltzmann’s constant today, and therefore a very important contribution to our system of physical units).

Boltzmann constant k, the definition of the unit of temperature and energy

Temperature is one of the physics quantities we use most, and understanding all aspects of temperature is at the core of Ludwig Boltzmann’s work. People measured temperature long before anyone knew what temperature really is: temperature is a measurement of the average kinetic energy of the atoms of a substance. When we touch a body to “feel” its temperature, what we are really doing is to measure the “buzz”, the thermal vibrations of the atoms making up that body.

For an ideal gas, the kinetic energy per molecule is equal to 3/2 k.T, where k is Boltzmann’s constant. Therefore Boltzmann’s constant directly links energy and Temperature.

However, when we measure “Temperature” in real life, we are not really measuring the true thermodynamic temperature, what we are really measuring is T90, a temperature scale ITS-90 defined in 1990, which is anchored by the definition of temperature units in the System International, the SI system of defining a set of fundamental physical units. Our base units are of fundamental importance for example to transfer semiconductor production processes around the world. For example, when a semiconductor production process requires a temperature of 769.3 Kelvin or mass of 1.0000 Kilogram, then accurate definition and methods of measurement are necessary to achieve precisely the same temperature or mass in different laboratories or factories around the world.

The SI system of physical units

The SI system consists of seven units, which at the moment are defined as follows:

  • second: The second is the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium 133 atom.
  • metre: The meter is the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second.
  • kilogram: The kilogram is the unit of mass; it is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram.
  • Ampere: The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1 meter apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 x 10-7 newton per meter of length.
  • Kelvin: The kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature, is the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water.
  • mole:
    1. The mole is the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon 12
    2. When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified and may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specified groups of such particles.
  • candela: The candela is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 x 1012 hertz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per steradian.

The definitions of base units has long history, and are evolving over time. Today several of the definitions are particularly problematic, among the most problematic are temperature and mass.

SI base units are closely linked to fundamental constants:

  • second:
  • metre: linked to c = speed of light in vacuum
  • kilogram: linked to h = Planck constant.
  • Ampere: linked to e = elementary charge (charge of an electron)
  • Kelvin: linked to k = Boltzmann constnt
  • mole: linked to N = Avogadro constant
  • candela:

Switch to a new framework for the SI base units:

Each fundamental constant Q is a product of a number {Q} and a base unit [Q]:

Q = {Q} x [Q],

for example Boltzmann’s constant is:
k = 1.380650 x 10-23 JK-1.

Thus we have two ways to define the SI system of SI base units:

  1. we can fix the units [Q], and then measure the numerical values {Q} of fundamental constants in terms of these units (method valid today to define the SI system)
  2. we can fix the numbers {Q} of fundamental constants, and then define the units [Q] thus that the fundamental constants have the numerical values {Q} (future method of defining the SI system)

Over the next few years the SI system of units will be switched from the today’s method (1.) where units are fixed and numerical values of fundamental constants are “variable”, i.e. determined experimentally, to the new method (2.) where the numerical values of the set of fundamental constants is fixed, and the units are defined such, that their definition results in the fixed numerical values of the set of fundamental constants. This switch to a new definition of the SI system requires international agreements, and decisions by international organizations, and this process is expected to be completed by 2018.

Today’s method (1.) above is problematic: The SI unit of temperature, Kelvin is defined as the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature at the triple point of water. The problem is that the triple point depends on many factors including pressure, and the precise composition of water, in terms of isotopes and impurities. In the current definition the water to be used is determined as “VSNOW” = Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water. Of course this is highly problematic, and the new method (2.) will not depend on VSNOW any longer.

In the new system (2.) the Kelvin will be defined as:

Kelvin is defined such, that the numerical value of the Boltzmann constant k is equal to exactly 1.380650 x 10-23 JK-1.

Measurement of the Boltzmann constant k:

In order to link the soon to be fixed numerical value of Boltzmann’s constant to currently valid definitions of the Kelvin, and in particular to determine the precision and errors, it is necessary to measure the value of Boltzmann’s current in terms of today’s units as accurately as possible, and also to understand and estimate all errors in the measurement. Several measurements of Boltzmann’s constants are being performed in laboratories around the world, particularly at several European and US laboratories. Arguably today’s best measurement has been performed by Dr Michael de Podesta MBE CPhys MInstP, Principal Research Scientist at the National Physical Laboratory NPL in Teddington, UK, who has kindly discussed his measurements and today’s status of the work on the system of SI units and its redefinition with me, and has greatly assisted in the preparation of this article. Dr Podesta’s measurements of Boltzmann’s constant have been published in:
Michael de Podesta et al. “A low-uncertainty measurement of the Boltzmann constant”, Metrologia 50 (2013) 354-376.

Dr Podesta’s measurements are extremely sophisticated, needed many years of work, and cooperations with several other laboratories. Dr. Podesta and collaborators constructed a highly precise resonant cavity filled with Argon gas. Dr. Podesta measured both the microwave resonance modes of the cavity to determine the precise radius and geometry, and determined the speed of sound in the Argon gas from acoustic resonance modes. Dr Podesta performed exceptionally accurate measurements of the speed of sound in this cavity, which can be said to be the most accurate thermometer globally today. The speed of sound can be directly related to 3/2 k.T, the mean molecular kinetic energy of the Argon molecules. In these measurements, Dr. Podesta very carefully considered many different types of influences on his measurements, such as surface gas layers, shape of microwave and acoustic sources and sensors etc. He achieved a relative standard uncertainty of 0.71. 10-6, which means that his measurements of Boltzmann’s constant are estimated to be accurate to within better than on millionth. Dr. Podesta’s measurements directly influences the precision with which we measure temperature in the new system of units.

Over the last 10 years there is intense effort in Europe and the USA to build rebuild the SI unit system. In particular NIST (USA), NPL (UK), several French institutions and Italian institutions, as well as the German PTB (Physikalische Technische Bundesanstalt) are undertaking this effort. To my knowledge there is only very small or no contribution from Japan to this effort, which was surprising for me.

What is today’s best value for the Boltzmann constant k:

Today’s accepted best value of Boltzmann’s constant is the “2010 Codata value”:

k = 1.380 6488 . 10-23 JK-1, and the standard uncertainty is:
su = 0.000 0013 . 10-23 JK-1

Boltzmann constant by Gerhard Fasol
Gerhard Fasol
Boltzmann constant by Gerhard Fasol
Gerhard Fasol

Copyright (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK All Rights Reserved

Kenichi Iga: Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL)

VCSEL inventor Kenichi Iga: h\nu vs kT – Optoelectronics and Energy

Kenichi Iga

Keynote presented at the 6th Ludwig Boltzmann Symposium on February 20, 2014 at the Embassy of Austria in Tokyo.

Kenichi Iga, inventor of VCSEL
Kenichi Iga, inventor of VCSEL

by: Kenichi Iga, Former President and Emeritus Professor of Tokyo Institute of Technology. Inventor of VCSEL (vertical cavity surface emitting lasers), widely used in photonics systems

Summary written by Gerhard Fasol

VCSEL: how Kenichi Iga invented Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers

My invention of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) dates back to March 22, 1977. Today VCSEL devices are used in many applications all over the world. I was awarded the 2013 Franklin Institute Award, the Bower Award and Prize for Achievement in Science, “for the conception and development of the vertical cavity surface emitting laser and its multiple applications in optoelectronics“. Benjamin Franklin’s work is linked to mine: Benjamin Franklin in 1752 discovered that thunder originates from electricity – he linked electronics (electricity) with photons (light). After 1960 the era of lasers began, we learnt how to combine and control electrons and photons, and the era of optoelectronics.

If you read Japanese, you may be interested to read an interview with Genichi Hatakoshi and myself, intitled “The treasure micro box of optoelectronics” which was recently published in the Japanese journal OplusE Magazine by Adcom-Media.

Electrons and photons

Who are electrons? Electrons are just like a cloud expressed by Schroedinger’s equation, which Schroedinger postulated in 1926. Electrons can also be seen as randomly moving particles, described by the particle version of Schroedinger’s equation (1931).

Where does light come from? Light is generated by the accelerated motion of charged particles.

Electrons also show interference patterns. For example, if we combine the 1s and 2p orbitals around a nucleus, we observe interference.

In a semiconductor, electrons are characterized by a band structure, filled valence bands and largely empty conduction bands. The population of hole states in the valence bands and of electrons in the conduction bands are determined by the Fermi-Dirac distribution. In typical III-V semiconductors, generation and absorption of light is by transitions between 4s anti-bonding orbitals (the bottom of the conduction band) and 4p bonding orbitals (the top of the valence band).

In Japan, we are good at inventing new types of vertical structures:

  • in 607, the Horyuji 5-Jyu-no Toh (5 story tower) was built in Nara, and today we have progressed to building the 634 meter high Tokyo Sky Tree Tower.
  • in 1893, Kubota Co. Ltd. developed the vertical molding of water pipes
  • in 1977 Shunichi Iwawaki invented vertical magnetic memory
  • in 1977 Tatsuo Izawa developed VAD (vapor-phase axial deposition) of silica fibers
  • in 1977 Kenichi Iga invented vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL)

Communications and optical signal transmission

History of communications spans from 10,000 years BC with the invention of language, and 3000 BC with the invention of written characters and papyrus, to the invention of the internet in 1957, the realization of the laser in 1960, the realization of optical fiber communications in 1984, and now since 2008 we see Web 2.x and Cloud.

Optical telegraphy goes back to 200 BC, when optical beacons were used in China: digital signals using multi-color smoke. Around 600 AD we had optical beacons in China, Korea and Japan, and in 1200 BC also in Mongolia and India.
In the 18th and 19th century, optical semaphores were used in France.

In the 20th century, optical beam transmission using optical rods and optical fiber transmissions were developed, which combined with the development of lasers created today’s laser communications. Yasuharu Suematsu and his student showed the world’s first demonstration of optical fiber communications demonstration on May 26, 1963 at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, using a He-Ne laser, an electro-optic crystal for modulation of the laser light by the electrical signal from a microphone, and optical bundle fiber, and a photo-tube at the other end of the optical fiber bundle to revert the optical signals back into electrical signals and finally to drive a loud speaker. For his pioneering work, Yasuharu Suematsu was awarded the International Japan Prize in 2014.

VCSEL: I recorded my initial idea for the surface emitting laser on March 22, 1977 in my lab book.

Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSEL) have many advantages:

  1. ultra-low power consumption: small volume
  2. pure spectrum operation: short cavity
  3. continuous spectrum tuning: single resonance
  4. high speed modulation: wide response range
  5. easy coupling to optical fibers: circular mode
  6. monolithic fabrication like LSI
  7. wafer level probe testing
  8. 2-dimensional array
  9. vertical stack integration with micro-machine
  10. physically small

VCSEL have found applications in many fields, including: data communications, sensing, printing, interconnects, displays.

As an example, the Tsubame-2 supercomputer, which in November 2011 was 5th of top-500 supercomputers, and on June 2, 2011 was greenest computer of Green500, uses 3500 optical fiber interconnects with a length of 100km. In 2012: Too500/Green500/Graph500

IBM Sequoia uses 330,000 VCSELs.

Fuji Xerox introduced the first demonstration of 2 dimensional 4×8 VCSEL printer array for high speed and ultra-fine resolution laser printing: 14 pages/minute and 2400 dots/inch.

VCSEL: Some recent news:

The laser market is estimated to be US$ 11 billion by 2017.
VCSELs move to optical interconnects.
By 2019 the optical interconnect market is estimated to reach US$ 5.2 billion.

VCSEL: In summary

VCSEL photonics started from minor reputation and generated big innovation. VCSELs feature:

  • low power consumption: good for green ICE
  • high speed modulation beyond 20 GBits/second
  • 2D array
  • good productivity due to monolithic process

Future: will generate ideas never thought before.

VCSEL em. President of Tokyo Institute of Technology, Professor Kenichi Iga, inventor of VCSEL
em. President of Tokyo Institute of Technology, Professor Kenichi Iga, inventor of VCSEL
VCSEL Gerhard Fasol (left), em. President of Tokyo Institute of Technology, Professor Kenichi Iga (right)
Gerhard Fasol (left), em. President of Tokyo Institute of Technology, Professor Kenichi Iga (right)

Copyright·©2014 ·Eurotechnology Japan KK·All Rights Reserved·

5th Ludwig Boltzmann Forum Tokyo 2013

Ludwig Boltzmann Forum 2013
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum 2013

“ENERGY”

Wednesday, 20th February 2013, Embassy of Austria, Tokyo

  • 14:00 Welcome by Dr. Bernhard Zimburg, Ambassador of Austria to Japan
  • 14:10 Gerhard Fasol, “today’s agenda”
  • 14:20 – 14:40 Robert Geller
    Professor of Geophysics University of Tokyo, seismologist. First ever tenured non-Japanese faculty member at the University of Tokyo
    “A seismologist looks at nuclear power plant safety issues”
  • 14:40 – 15:20 Gerhard Fasol
    Physicist. CEO of Eurotechnology Japan KK, served as Assoc Professor at Tokyo University and Lecturer at Cambridge University and Manager of Hitachi Cambridge R&D lab
    “Ludwig Boltzmann – the disrespectful revolutionary”
  • 15:40 – 16:20 Kiyoshi Kurokawa
    Academic Fellow of GRIPS and former Chairman of Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission by National Diet of Japan
    “Creativity, Crazy Ones and Power of Pull”
  • 16:40 – 17:20 Shuji Nakamura
    Professor, University of California, Santa Barbara. Inventor of GaN LEDs and lasers, which are the basis for the global LED lighting revolution.
    “The global lighting revolution and the changes I want for Japan”
  • 17:20 – 17:30 Gerhard Fasol “Summary”
  • Followed by reception (private, invitation only)

Registration: latest 10 February 2013 (by invitation only)

Further information:
Gerhard Fasol, Contact by email
Peter Storer, Minister for Cultural Affairs, Embassy of Austria

Summary

Robert Geller: “A seismologist looks at nuclear power plant safety issues”

Robert Geller gave an overview of large scale earthquakes and tsunamis in different regions of earth, and in history, and explained that large “Tohoku-2011” scale earth quakes and tsunamis do have a finite probability of striking Japan, and need to be taken in to account in the construction of structures such as nuclear power plants. Robert Geller in particular explained and emphasized the risks on the northern coast of Japan, facing the Sea of Japan.

Gerhard Fasol: “Ludwig Boltzmann – the disrespectful revolutionary”

Gerhard Fasol reviewed Ludwig Boltzmann’s life and work, and particular Boltzmann’s efforts to promote open discussion and to destroy dogmatic views, most importantly the rejection of atoms by Oswald’s school of “energetics” and Mach. Ludwig Boltzmann’s work is fundamental in many areas of today’s physics, technology, IT, energy and in many other fields. As a demonstration of Ludwig Boltzmann’s work linking the macrosopic face of Entropy with the statistical properties of atoms and molecules, Gerhard Fasol explained today’s state of development of electrical power production from the entry of mixing of water with different concentrations of salts, from salinity gradients. “Osmotic powerplants”, which are directly based on Boltzmann’s work on the Entropy of mixing, have the potential to be developed into a very important contribution to our future renewable energy mix, although much research still remains to be done, especially in the area of semipermeable membranes.

Kiyoshi Kurokawa: “Creativity, Crazy Ones and Power of Pull – Uncertain Times: Changing Principles”

Kiyoshi Kurokawa laid out the rapid and dramatic changes we are currently facing in our world: the development of the global information revolution, revolutions towards democracy in the arab world, the Sept-11 terror attacks, and the triple disaster in Tohoku in March 2011. As short summary of the information revolution, linked with other major developments of global impact:

web 1.0: 1991-2000 – end of cold war, world wide web, globalization and financial crises: 1990, 1992, 1997

web 2.0: 2001-2010 – 9.11, digital age, wireless, touch panel, growth of emerging economies, BRICs, global financial crisis 2007, and President Barak Obama

web 3.0: 2011- – Arab Spring, and March-11 Tohoku disaster

Paradigm shift of The Principles (Joi Ito, MIT Media Lab, and Kiyoshi Kurokawa, GRIPS):

The principles 1:
RESILIENCE instead of strength
RISK instead of safety
SYTEMS instead of objects

The principles 2:
COMPASSES instead of maps
PULL instead of push
PRACTICE instead of theory

The principles 3:
DISOBEDIENCE instead of compliance
CROWDS instead of experts
LEARNING instead of education

For his work as former Chairman of Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission by National Diet of Japan, Kiyoshi Kurokawa was recently awarded the “Scientific Freedom and Responsibility Award” by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Kiyoshi Kurokawa paid particular attention for the deliberations and fact finding by the Independent Investigation Commission was open and transparent, and published globally in Japanese and in English in many different forms. The report itself can be downloaded here: http://warp.da.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/3856371/naiic.go.jp/index.html

Kiyoshi Kurokawa emphasised the contribution of “Regulatory Capture” to the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Important work on “Regulatory Capture” was done by US economist George Stigler, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1982. Kiyoshi Kurokawa emphasized that Regulatory Capture is not specific to Japan, there are many examples throughout the world.

Shuji Nakamura: “The global lighting revolution and the changes I want for Japan”

Shuji Nakamura briefly outlined his inventions of a long series of GaN based devices, GaN LEDs and lasers, which are the basis for the global lighting revolution, and for bluray storage technology. Shuji Nakamura gave us a passionate personal view of his work as a researcher, how he created and experienced the breakthroughs, and some consequences on his personal life. Shuji Nakamura explained how he was accused in a US court by his former employer, and how as a consequence in order to defend himself and his family, he saw himself forced to countersue his former employer in Japanese courts. Shuji Nakamura compared his situation as a researcher in Japan, and now in Santa Barbara, and made some suggestions for change for the position of researchers.

Photos

4th Ludwig Boltzmann Forum Tokyo 2012

Energy. Entropy. Leadership.

Monday, 20th February 2012 at the Embassy of Austria in Tokyo

Ludwig Boltzmann Forum Tokyo 2012 – Program

  • 14:00 Welcome by Thomas Loidl, Chargé d’affaires ad interim of the Austrian Embassy
  • 14:10 Gerhard Fasol: today’s agenda”
  • 14:20 – 14:40 Tatsuo Masuda
    Professor at Nagoya University of Commerce and Business, served as Director of Oil Markets and Emergency Preparedness of IEA
    “New energy architecture for Japan”
  • 14:40 – 15:20 Kiyoshi Kurokawa (schedule permitting)
    Chairman of Japan’s Parliamentary Commission on the Fukushima Disaster, served as Special Cabinet Advisor on Science, Technology and Innovation
    “Fukushima crisis fueling the third opening of Japan”
  • 15:50 – 16:10 Hideaki Watanabe
    Corporate Vice-President, Nissan Motor Company, in charge of Electric Vehicles and Zero Emission Business
    “The new energy management supported by Electric Vehicles”
  • 16:10 – 16:30 Robert Geller
    Professor of Geophysics University of Tokyo, seismologist. First ever tenured non-Japanese faculty member at the University of Tokyo
    “Understanding earthquakes: let’s put the physics back into geophysics!”
  • 16:50 – 17:30 Gerhard Fasol
    Physicist. CEO of Eurotechnology Japan KK, served as Assoc Professor at Tokyo University and Lecturer at Cambridge University and Manager of Hitachi Cambridge R&D lab
    “Ludwig Boltzmann and the laws governing energy”
  • 17:30 – 17:50 Jonathan M Dorfan
    Particle physicist
    President, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, OIST. Served as Director of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center
    “New Solutions for Energy – OIST’s R&am;D Program”
  • Followed by reception (private, invitation only)

Registration: latest 15 February 2011
Further information:
Gerhard Fasol,
Peter Storer, Minister for Cultural Affairs, Embassy of Austria

Ludwig Boltzmann Forum 2012
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum 2012

Summary

Tatsuo Masuda: “New energy architecture for Japan”

Tatsuo Masuda described how Japan’s energy strategy and policy was until recently determined more or less behind closed doors by a group of about 100 insiders, of which Tatsuo Masuda has been one. This situation could continue as long as nothing went wrong.

Atomic energy was introduced to Japan via the USA, and instead of growing nuclear technology over an extended period of time within Japan, policians decided on a very short time schedule, which made it impossible to develop nuclear technology within Japan, and left purchase of ready-made nuclear power-plants and adoption of nuclear power technology from the USA as the only option.

Tatsuo Masuda predicts the “democratization” of electrical power generation in Japan. While at present almost all electrical power in Japan is produced by regional monopoly companies, in the future a development is likely, where many organizations, corporations, and private citizens will take part, or even may take over the main task or producing electrical energy in Japan.

Hideaki Watanabe: “The new energy management supported by Electric Vehicles”

Hideki Watanabe explained Nissan’s Leaf electrical vehicle program, and the associated energy technologies and businesses. During the coffee break, participants studied a Lead car, and an animated discussion took place about advantages and disadvantages of electrical cars, and in particular the Lead with respect to cold weather performance and other extreme conditions

Mr Watanabe explained that the Leaf electric car is the center of an energy management system, where the battery of Leaf electric car is an integral part of the energy management of the owner’s household.

Robert Geller: “Understanding earthquakes: let’s put the physics back into geophysics!”

Robert Geller calls for an return to the principles of physics in understanding earth quakes and in preparing for future disasters, instead of following positions based on political or funding priorities.

Robert Geller for a long time has been arguing for the view, that the timing, location and strength of earthquakes cannot be predicted due to fundamental principles of physics, and the nature of the earth. Robert demonstrated his arguments by bending a pencil in front of us (see photos below). While the stress distribution and other details can be calculated with precision, it is not possible to predict the time and the way the pencil breaks with accuracy. Robert argues that in a similar way, earth quakes can also not be predicted, because earth quakes are essentially in the mathematical sense chaotic phenomena.

Robert explained how a group of earth scientists years ago promised that they could predict earth quakes with the purpose of obtaining politically motivated funding for their research. They were successful in obtaining continuous research funding with the explicit purpose of developing methods to predict earthquakes. Once this funding started flowing for many years now, it is very difficult for scientists obtaining this funding to put the possibility of earthquake prediction in question.

Robert also discussed official earth quake risk maps, and explained that many of the strongest earth quakes occur in areas which are officially designated as low risk areas.

Robert called for a reassessment of earth quake policies and preparations for future disasters, using the most up-to-date results of earth-science, and to review outdated positions, and abandon those positions, which have been shown to be invalid using established methods of physics.

Gerhard Fasol: “Ludwig Boltzmann and the laws governing energy”

Gerhard Fasol reviewed Ludwig Boltzmann’s life and work, and particular his life-long work on the fundamental laws of physics governing energy.

Jonathan M Dorfan: “New Solutions for Energy – OIST’s R&D Program”

Jonathan Dorfan introduced OIST, The Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, which has just recently been accredited as a Graduate University by the Japanese Ministry of Education, and introduced several research programs in the field of energy generation.

Jonathan explained the history of OIST, and OIST’s pioneering position as an English speaking international Graduate University in Japan. In particular, OIST has no Departments which would create barriers between research groups, instead the emphasis is on cross-disciplinary cooperation supported by the latest instrumentats and research tools. According to Jonathan, OIST succeeds in attracting most outstanding staff and students – surprisingly current market conditions seem to make it easier to attract outstanding research staff than students – the market for attracting outstanding students seems to be more competitive than for research staff. OIST offers scholarships for students, many or all of which are graduates from top ranking undergraduate schools.

Ludwig Boltzmann Forum Tokyo 2012 – Photos

Contact

3rd Ludwig Boltzmann Forum Tokyo 2011

Topic “Space and Energy and Ludwig Boltzmann”

Thursday, 17th February 2011 at the Embassy of Austria in Tokyo

Program

  • 14:00 Welcome by Michael Haider, Cultural Counsellor of the Austrian Embassy
  • 14:10 – 14:40 Gerhard Fasol,
    “Ludwig Boltzmann: Pioneer of understanding Space and Energy”
  • 15:00 – 15:45 Tetsuhiko Ikegami, PhD
    Chairman, Space Activities Commission, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)
    “Japan’s space activities and international space cooperation
  • 16:00 – 16:30 Kevin Yu
    Director of Asia Pacific, Tesla Motors Japan
    “The Tesla Motors Electric Car”
  • 16:30-17:00 Tatsuo Masuda
    Professor, Nagoya University of Commerce and Business, Advisor JAPEX, and Board Member SOC Corporation
    “Economics and Geopolitics of Climate Change
  • Followed by reception (private, invitation only)

Registration: latest 15 February 2011

Further information:
Gerhard Fasol,
Georg Poestinger, Counsellor, Austrian Embassy, Tel 03-3451-8281

Ludwig Boltzmann Energy, entropy, leadership
Ludwig Boltzmann Energy, entropy, leadership

Summary

Gerhard Fasol: “Ludwig Boltzmann: Pioneer of understanding Space and Energy”

Gerhard Fasol reviewed Ludwig Boltzmann’s pioneering work on space and energy, starting with and overview of Ludwig Boltzmann’s personal live. Boltzmann’s first scientific publication was “Über die Bewegung der Elektrizität in krummen Flächen” (propagation of electricity on curved surfaces) in 1865 at the age of 21 years. This work followed the publication of the Maxwell’s equations by James Clerk Maxwell, in 1861-1862, which of course were a very hot scientific event at that time. All together about 1/5th of Boltzmann’s work was about electro-magnetism.

Ludwig Boltzmann became Full Professor at the age of 25 years at the University of Graz, and at the age of 43 years, became Rektor (= President) of the University of Graz. He travelled extensively, including three trips to the United States of America. Without doubt his frequent travel also encouraged
Boltzmann’s interest in aviation. In Boltzmann’s days, it was not clear yet, which way aviation would be successful, or if it would be successful at all. There were three options: (1) baloons, (2) aerodynamic wings and airscrew, and (3) bird-like flapping wings. Boltzmann clearly prefered and supporte research for flight experiments with aerodynamic wings and airscrews – propellers.

Ludwig Boltzmann worked on the fundamentals of space science, he gave much thought on the irreversibility of time, and on whether space is Euclidic or curved.

Concluding his talk, Gerhard Fasol, reviewed what we can learn here in Japan from Ludwig Boltzmann. It is clear that Japan currently is in a very difficult situation with many challenges. Ludwig Boltzmann’s work clearly points to solutions for some of the challenges facing Japan now, and also indicates some paths to be taken.

Tetsuhiko Ikegami: “Japan’s space activities and international space cooperation”

Dr. Ikegami reminded us of the miracle, that our planet earth holds an only 50 km thin
atmosphere for about 4.5 billion years, and most people on earth are not even conscientously
aware of this miracle.

The Hayabusa space probe was on its way between 2003 – 2010 for more than 7 years, and landed in Australia on 13 June 2010, awaited with great expectation and sympathy. The Minister of MEXT praised JAXA, the Universities and small and medium entreprises, he explained that a Minister of MEXT had never before praised small and medium enterprises before, because in Japan’s silo ministry system, small and medium enterprises are the responsibility of the Economics and Industry Ministry, METI.

The interplanetary kite-craft IKAROS probe consists of a 14 meter x 14 meter sail, and was driven by light pressure from the sun – the light force corresponds to 0.1 gG. A thin-film solar battery and liquid crystals control the light reflection for steering.

In the Japanese population the space program finds great interest and sympathy. Hayabusa’s return encouraged people in an uncertain society. Several books about space and space exploration became best-sellers and were rewarded with prestigious book awards.

In the Japanese population the space program finds great interest and sympathy. Hayabusa’s return encouraged people in an uncertain society. Several books about space and space exploration became best-sellers and were rewarded with prestigious book awards.

Japan is an active participant in the international space station, contributing the Kibo module.

Japan did an exceptionally good job in space, with relatively small budgets compared to US and EU space budgets.

Dr. Ikegami concluded with an outlook on future programs, and on the key issues facing space exploration and space development

Kevin Yu: “The Tesla Motors Electric Car”

Tesla Motors wants to change the global car industry. Why did Tesla start by building an electric sports car, while the world does not really need another sports car? Tesla wanted to make electric cars exciting! After the Tesla Roadster, Tesla will introduce a family saloon, the Tesla S, at about 1/2 the price of the Roadster, and with three battery options to choose from for a driving range of 160, 200 and 300 miles.

Governments cannot pay people enough to bring a breakthrough for electric cars – instead consumers must want to buy electric cars without Government subsidies. To achieve such consumer demand, electric cars must be more exciting, better, higher performance and cheaper than traditional gasoline driven cars.

Tesla uses the same batteries as are used for laptop computers. Therefore advances in battery technology will happen independent of Tesla’s battery procurement. What matters instead is how Tesla uses and manages the energy. Therefore Tesla’s key intellectual property is in energy management and usage, not in battery technology itself.

Tetsuo Masuda: “Economics and Geopolitics of Climate Change”

Climate change originates from the beginning of industrialization in the 18th century. A key issue in order to achieve change in positive directions is political leadership. Since political leadership is usually focussed on short term issues in order to achieve victory at elections, it is necessary to impress the importance of climate change issues on political leaders. Natural disasters, food shortages, huge movements of refugees are events which impact political leaders to take action in the right direction. Developed and developing countries have different interests, and discussions are necessary in order resolve these differences of interest.

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Dr. Ikegami, Chairman of Japan’s Space Commission, explains Japan’s space exploration program

Kevin Yu, Head of Asia-Pac for Tesla Motors, demonstrates a Tesla Roadster

Dr. Ikegami, Head of Japan’s Space Commission, test drives a Tesla Roadster

Kevin Yu, Head of Asia-Pac for Tesla Motors, explains Tesla Roadster’s battery and motor system

Michael Haider, Cultural Attache of the Austrian Embassy test drives a Tesla Roadster

Kevin Yu, Head of Asia-Pac for Tesla Motors, explains Tesla Motor’s strategy, while Dr. Ikegami, Head of Japan’s Space Commission listens

Tatsuo Masuda explains geopolitics of global warming

Reception

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2nd Ludwig Boltzmann Forum Tokyo 2010

Topic “Leadership and Diversity”

Thursday, 18th February 2010 at the Embassy of Austria in Tokyo

  • 14:00 Welcome by HE the Ambassador of Austria to Japan
  • 14:10 – 14:40 Gerhard Fasol,
    “Ludwig Boltzmann as a local and global leader”
  • 15:00 – 15:20 Atsuko Heshiki, MD and PhD
    President of Medical Woman’s International Association (MWIA) and Professor Emeritus at Saitama Medical School
    “Leadership in Professionalism”
  • 15:20 – 15:40 Robert J Geller
    Professor of Geophysics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo
    “Faculty appointments and promotions in the age of bibliometrics”
  • 15:40 – 16:00 Podium discussion
    “Leadership and diversity”
  • 16:15-17:15 Kiyoshi Kurokawa,
    Professor, National Graduate Institute for Policy Science, Tokyo, Science and Technology, Former President of the Science Council of Japan, and
    Special Advisor to the Cabinet
    “Leadership and Diversity”
  • Followed by reception (private, invitation only)

Registration: latest 16 February 2010

Further information:
Gerhard Fasol,
Georg Poestinger, Counsellor, Austrian Embassy, Tel 03-3451-8281

Ludwig Boltzmann S=k log W
Ludwig Boltzmann S=k log W

Summary

As every year this year’s high-light was Professor Kurokawa’s presentation – Professor Kurokawa gave a passionate plea for change on all fronts – most surprising was his suggestion to select a Muslim Malaisian woman as the next President of Tokyo University, in order to achieve urgently needed changes in Japan’s society and Japan’s Universities.

Professor Heshiki explained about ethics and professionalism focusing on medical sciences and the work of medical professionals.

Professor Robert Geller explained how today’s bibliometrics revolution allows much better than in the past to measure the impact of scientific work. Robert suggested how to use bibliometric data to make the selection, appointments and promotions of researchers and academics more efficient.

Gerhard Fasol focused on Ludwig Boltzmann’s leadership qualities and his global impact. Ludwig Boltzmann travelled three times to the United States of America, and he travelled, and had impact all over Europe. He also worked in several different Universities in Austria and Germany.

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1st Ludwig Boltzmann Forum Tokyo 2009

Energy. Entropy. Leadership.

Friday, 20th February 2009 (Boltzmann’s birthday, 165 years ago) at the Embassy of Austria in Tokyo

  • 14:00 Welcome by HE the Ambassador of Austria to Japan
  • 14:05-14:35 Hisashi Kobayashi,
    Sherman Fairchild University Professor Emeritus, Princeton University, Executive Advisor, National Institute for Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Japan.
    “Ludwig Boltzmann: His Impacts on Information and Communications Technologies”
  • 14:35-14:45 Coffee Break
  • 14:45-15:15 Gerhard Fasol, CEO, Eurotechnology Japan KK “Ludwig Boltzmann’s scientific achievements”
  • 15:15-15:45 Kazu Ishikawa (EXA Japan) Demonstrations:
    “Boltzmann’s equation for simulation and visualizing flow for the construction of cars, airplanes…”
  • 15:45-16:00 Coffee Break
  • 16:00-16:30 Kiyoshi Kurokawa,
    Professor, National Graduate Institute for Policy Science, Tokyo, Science and Technology, Former President of the Science Council of Japan, and
    Special Advisor to the Cabinet
    “Science and Technology Leadership and Society”
  • 16:30-17:00 Gerhard Fasol, “Ludwig Boltzmann’s three trips to America and his human achievements ”
  • Followed by reception (private, invitation only)

Registration: latest 14 February 2009

Further information:
Gerhard Fasol,
Georg Poestinger, Counsellor, Austrian Embassy, Tel 03-3451-8281

Ludwig Boltzmann Energy, entropy, leadership
Ludwig Boltzmann Energy, entropy, leadership

Summary

Ludwig Boltzmann was one of the most important physicists and philosophers: it is almost impossible for any engineer, chemist or physicist to do a day’s work without using Boltzmann’s tools and results every day. Ludwig Boltzmann is this author’s and Eurotechnology Japan KK’s founder’s great grandfather – and his excellence is our company’s guiding light.

Ludwig Boltzmann was born 165 years ago on February 20, 1844, and last Friday, February 20, 2009 we celebrated by inviting several of Japan’s science and technology leaders to the Ludwig Boltzmann Symposium in Tokyo with kind cooperation and hospitality by the Ambassador of Austria and the Austrian Embassy.

First speaker was Professor Hisashi Kobayashi, Founder of the IBM Tokyo Laboratory, former Dean of Engineering of Princeton University. He showed how Entropy and noise in communications is linked to Boltzmann’s generalized Entropy and the H-Theorem. Coming from Princeton, Hisashi also showed us elegantly how strongly Einstein’s work is linked to Boltzmann’s.

Professor Kiyoshi Kurokawa, former Dean of Medicine of Tokai University, former President of Japan’s Science Council and Advisor to two Japanese Prime Ministers and now Professor at Japan’s new Political Science University, gave an intense and passionate speech about which changes are necessary to live in our future which will be hot (as in global warming), flat (as in global communications and internet) and crowded (due do population growth). (Website of the book “Hot, flat and croweded” by Thomas L Friedman) Kiyoshi also made a passionate appeal to Japanese organisations (including the S&T leaders participating at our Symposium) to change, open up and compete globally.

Kazu Ishikawa of Exa Japan gave a fantastic demonstration how Boltzmann’s equations are used to simulate airflow for the construction of cars, airplanes, jet engines … Boltzmann’s equations replace the macroscopic Navier-Stokes equations as numerical wind tunnels. Boltzmann’s equations are particularly needed for the simulation of transients.

Finally, Gerhard Fasol, Ludwig Boltzmann’s Great-Grandson, gave two talks: one talk about Ludwig Boltzmann’s scientific achievements, his search for understanding the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics with mechanics, the effects of collisions and the generalization to non-equilibrium – leading the H-Theorem, and the generalization of Entropy and Boltzmann’s philosophical work. The second talk introduced the human side of Ludwig Boltzmann: his life and his passions.

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