# Endeavors for Mathematics for Industry in Japan

## Masato Wakayama

### keynote talk given at 9th Ludwig Boltzmann Forum, Embassy of Austria in Tokyo, 16 March 2017

by Masato Wakayama Executive Vice-President & Trustee, Kyushu University, Distinguished Professor of Mathematics

(Summary of Professor Masato Wakayama’s talk written by Gerhard Fasol)

## Two important energies: hydrogen energy and prime number energy

• Hydrogen drives the hydrogen economy
• Prime numbers are at the core of encryption, the RSA Cryptosystem

Prime number were discovered almost 2500 years ago by the Pythagorean school in ancient Greece: the infinitude of primes, and the unique prime decomposition of integers.

## 2017 and Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (LEB)

2017 is prime in Z (the set of all integers), i.e. indecomposable.

However, Theorem:
2017 = |LEB|^2 in Z[i] where i = sqrt(-1), i.e. Gaussian integers

Proof of the Theorem:

2017 is a Pythagorean prime, 2017 = 9^2 + 44^2

LEB = 1844 = 18 + 44 = 9 x 2 + 44 = (twice 9) + 44 (mod 99)

twice 8 equals 9i. It follows that LEB = 9i + 44

Corollary:
LEB’s birth year decomposes the prime 2017, that is, LEB Symposium 2017 opens New Thoughts.

9i + 44, in Japanese can be pronounced as:

(44 + 9i) よし！行く！　which means: “Let’s go!”
(i9 + 44) 行くと良し　 which means: “Best to go.”

## Manyo-Shuu Anthology （万葉集）

During Japan’s Manyo era, poets made puns based on multiplication tables.

Examples:

etc

An example is:

『万葉集』巻十一（2542）

（若草の、新手枕を、巻き初めて、夜をや隔てむ、憎くあらなくに）

どうして一夜でも間を置くことができようか

“Manyo-shuu” Voll.11 (2542)
Ever since I started to sleep on the hand of
my new wife as a pillow, soft as young grass/
It is no longer possible to be separated from
her over night/ How could I, when there is not
a speck of hate in my heart

## Historical background in Japan

### 1603 – 1868, Edo period, Samurai era

We had a peaceful period in Japan, and Japan was a closed country.

### Takakazu Seki 関孝和 (1642 – 1708)

In 1674 discovered the determinant, earlier than the discovery by Leibniz in 1683.
He discovered Bernoulli numbers independently around the same time as Jacobi Bernoulli.

He discovered:
derivatives and integrals (in the West: Newton, Leibniz)
but, there was no discovery of the fundamental theorem of Calculus.
Mathematics votive tablets (san-gaku) featuring mathematical puzzles, mainly Euclidean Geometry.

### 1868 – 1912, Meiji Period, opening of Japan

Social system, law were imported from Britain
Science, technology were imported from Germany
Culture and arts were imported from France

In pure Mathematics, Göttingen in Germany was the leading center, and pure mathematics was imported from Göttingen to Japan

Applied mathematics was much harder to import to Japan.

### 1926 – 1989: Showa period, from 1989: Heisei period

Japan’s period of fast growth.

Japan had many strong applied mathematicians before high performance computers were developed in the mid-1990s, but they were not regarded or valued as mathematicians.

After the introduction of high performance computers, applied mathematics decreased in emphasis in Japan.

The Policy Study No. 12 of 2006 by NISTEP (of MEXT) created a shock for Japan’s mathematics community: the report wrote “Japanese mathematics is not as strong as we had expected”:

Mathematics as deserted science in Japanese S&T policy” ― Current situation on mathematical sciences research in major countries and need for mathematical sciences from the science in Japan ―
May 2006
by: Moritaka Hosotsubo, Yuko Ito, Terutaka Kuwahara

The main reason for this weakness was found to be the weakness and decreasing numbers of applied mathematics, and applied mathematicians.

The report stated: “It is desirable to have the same percentage of workers in the private sector of research and development as the West, which is 65%. However, in Japan the percentage in the private sector is only 26%. This shortage and nearly 40% gap relative to the West must be overcome”

At the same time, there was a world-wide trend in favor of mathematics for industrial technologies:

As a consequence, MEXT commissioned an investigation project “Investigation and estimation of promotion of cooperation of mathematics and mathematical science with other fields – Toward a proposal for the 4th governmental science & technology master plan”
(October 2009 – March 2010)
Implementing organizations were:
Kyushu University (Main),
University of Tokyo,
Mathematical Society of Japan,
Nippon Steel Company.
And the representative was: Masato Wakayama (Kyushu University)

We investigated and estimated the activities of mathematics and mathematical science, and those of their cooperation with the other fields that have been implemented in Japan, and thereby gained ideas for making a proposal to the Japanese government for promoting mathematics and for strengthening cooperation with various fields surrounding mathematics.

As a consequence of this investigation project:

1. The 4th Governmental Science & Technology Basic Plan (2011) of the Prime Minister’s Council of Science and Technology Policy (CSTP) for the first time ever stated that Mathematical Sciences are important and should be promoted.
2. The Mathematics Innovation Unit was established in MEXT
3. The Committee of Innovation by and for Mathematics was established by the Committee of Science and Technology (2011)
4. MEXT organized 22 workshops in mathematics and 36 workshops in mathematical sciences and math-for-industry
5. Cooperations with Mathematics programs and several leading schools of mathematics

2016: The 5th Governmental Science and Technology master plan again emphasizes mathematical science

Some resulting research programs:

• Alliance for breakthrough between mathematics and sciences (ABMS), leader: Yasumasa Nishiura (WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University) JST CREST/PREST 2007-2016
• Modeling methods allied with modern mathematics, leader: Takashi Tsuboi (Graduate School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Tokyo) JST CREST 2014-
• Collaborative mathematics for real world issues, leader: Hiroshi Kobuku (Dept of Mathematics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto Univ) JST PREST 2014-
• Meiji Institute for Advanced Study of Mathematical Sciences (MIMS), leader: Ichiro Hagiwara (Director Meiji University) 2007 –

## The Institute of Mathematics for Industry (IMI) of Kyushu University

• April 1911: Kyushu University was founded as the 4th of 7 Imperial Universities
• June 1939: Dept of Mathematics founded
• June 1994: Graduate School of Mathematics and Faculty of Mathematics founded
• April 2007: Mathematical Research Center for Industrial Technology (MRIT) founded
• April 2008: Global COE Program “Education & Research Hub for Mathematics-for-Industry”
• April 2011: Institute of Mathematics for Industry (IMI) founded
• September 2014: IMI Australia Branch at La Trobe Univ. (Melbourne) founded

Some achievements of Kyushu University’s Institute of Mathematics for Industry (IMI) include:

## Study of Casimir effects

The Casimir effect (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casimir_effect) leads to attraction between opposite mirrors in a vacuum, which are spaced a short distance apart, due to electro-magnetic wave fluctuations in the vacuum. The Casimir effect was first predicted in 1948 by Hendrick Casimir (1909-2000), and first measured by Steve K. Lamoreaux 1996.

An equivalent effect exists between ships which are spaced close to each other, see: SL Boersma, “A maritime analogy of the Casimir effect,” Am. J. Phys. 64, 539–541 (1996), http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.18150.

Derivation of the Casimir effect shows that the force between the two plates is directly related to Riemann’s zeta function, which again is directly connected with prime numbers.

# Entropy, information and Ludwig Boltzmann

## Gerhard Fasol

### keynote talk given at 9th Ludwig Boltzmann Forum, Embassy of Austria in Tokyo, 16 March 2017

by Gerhard Fasol CEO, Eurotechnology Japan KK, Board Director, GMO Cloud KK. former faculty Cambridge University and past Fellow, Trinity College Cambridge

We use Ludwig Boltzmann’s results every day. Here are some examples:

• The definition of the units of temperature, Kelvin, Celsius, are directly linked to Boltzmann’s constant
• The Stefan-Boltzmann radiation law tells us that the total energy emitted by a black body per unit surface area is proportional to the 4th power of the temperature, and allows us to measure temperatures at a distance. For example, the temperature of the surface of the sun can be measured using the Stefan-Boltzmann radiation law
• Boltzmann’s formula S = k log W links the macroscopic Entropy with the probability (W = Wahrscheinlichkeit) of a macrostate
• Boltzmann’s transport equations are used for many purposes, to simulate carrier transport in semiconductor devices, and to design airplanes, turbine blades and cars
• Ludwig Boltzmann’s philosophy of nature contributes to our understanding of nature and our world

Ludwig Boltzmann was proposed several times for the Nobel Prize: 1903, 1905 and three times in 1906, the year he took his life in Duino, Italy.

Ludwig Boltzmann achieved his Matura, Austria’s high-school examination required to enter University education at the age of 19 in 1863.

In 1865, at the age of 21, he published his first research paper entitled “Über die Bewegung der Elektrizität in krummen Flächen” (electricity in curved surfaces). It was the dawn of our electrical age, Maxwell created his Maxwell’s equations in 1861-1862, and on 15 February 1883, 20 years later, Tokyo Dentsu KK received the license to start its electricity business in Tokyo.

Among Ludwig Boltzmann’s teachers were Josef Loschmidt and Jozef Stefan.

Josef Loschmidt proposed structures for 300 chemical compounds including benzene, he determined the number of gas molecules in a given volume and the Loschmidt constant is named after him.

Jozef Stefan created the Stefan-Boltzmann Law with Ludwig Boltzmann, and used it to determine the temperature of the surface of the sun.

Ludwig Boltzmann traveled extensively, was in correspondence and discussions and scientific exchange with most major scientists of the time. He also moved professionally:

• University of Vienna
• 1867-1869 Privat-Dozent
• 1869-1873 Full Professor of Mathematical Physics in Graz
• 1873-1876 Full Professor of Mathematics in Vienna
• 1876-1890 Full Professor at University of Graz, Head of the Institute of Physics
• 1887-1888 Rektor (President) of the University of Graz
• 1890-1894 Professor University of München
• 1894-1900 Professor University of Vienna
• 1900-1902 Professor of Theoretical Physics University of Leipzig
• 1902- Professor University of Vienna

Ludwig Boltzmann supported and worked with women:

One of Ludwig Boltzmann’s students was Lise Meitner (November 1878 – 27 October 1968). Lise Meitner was part of Otto Han’s team that discovered nuclear fission, Otto Hahn was awarded the Nobel Prize. Lise Meitner was the second woman to earn a PhD degree in Physics at the University of Vienna. The Element 109, Meitnerium is named about Lise Meitner.

The first President of Osaka University (1931-1934), Nagaoka Kantaro (1865 – 1950) was Ludwig Boltzmann’s student in München around 1892-1893.

## The unit of temperature, Celsius or Kelvin, is directly linked to Boltzmann’s constant k

One Kelvin is defined such that the temperature of the triple point of water is exactly 273.16 Kelvin.
For this definition to be reproducible, the water needs to be defined: its defined as VSNOW = Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water.
While this definition may have been best at the time it was set, clearly its not sufficient for today.

When the SI system of physical units will be redefined next year, the definition of the unit of temperature, Kelvin will be:

Kelvin is defined such, that the numerical value of the Boltzmann constant k is equal to exactly 1.380650 x 10^-23 JK^-1.

Thus the unit of temperature Kelvin is directly linked to Boltzmann’s constant.

For more details, see: Boltzmann constant and the new SI system of units

## What is Entropy?

Entropy measures information, entropy is the measure of information.

Macro-states, determined for example by the macroscopic quantities pressure (p), Volume (V), or Temperature (T), or number of particles (N), contain a very large number of micro-states.

Boltzmann’s Entropy S = k logarithm of the phase volume(= the probability) of a macro-state in terms of the possible micro-states.

## Different faces of Entropy

Entropy has many faces

• thermodynamic entropy, is a macroscopic state parameter of a system in equilibrium, like temperature, pressure, volume. However, can we measure entropy directly?
• microscopic, statistical entropy
• Boltzmann Entropy: S = k log W
• Gibbs entropy
• information theory
• Shannon’s entropy

## Shannon’s entropy

Shannon: “I thought of calling it “information”. But the word was overly used, so I decided to call it “uncertainty”. When I discussed it with John von Neumann, he had a better idea:

1. in the first place your uncertainty has been used in statistical mechanics (ie by Boltzmann) under that name, so it already has a name
2. in the second place, and more importantly, no one knows what entropy really is, so in a debate you will always have the advantage

## What can we learn from Ludwig Boltzmann?

• Empower young people, recognize and support talent early
• LB published first scientific work at age 21
• Full Professor at 25
• Head of Department at 32
• President of University at 43
• Talent is not linear – talent is exponential
• Move around the world. Connect. Interact.
• Empower women (LB promoted many women)
• Don’t accept authority for authority’s sake
• Science/physics issues need to be treated with the methods of physics/science
• No dogmas
• Support entrepreneurs (LB supported airplane developers before airplanes existed)

## Dame Carol Black DBE FRCP FMedSci

### keynote given at the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on women’s development and leadership, Tokyo, Monday 16 May 2016

by Dame Carol Black DBE FRCP FMedSci, Principal of Newnham College, Cambridge University, and Expert Adviser on Health and Work, Department of Health and Public Health England

(Summary of Dame Carol Black’s keynote written by Gerhard Fasol)

Dame Carol Black DBE FRCP FMedSci
Principal of Newnham College, Cambridge University.
Dame Carol Black has held top positions in medicine and now holds high-level policy advisory positions on health and work in the United Kingdom.

## Women in healthcare – Women in the British National Health Service

The gender imbalance in the National Health Service is reflected by the facts that 77% of the total workforce is female, while only 7% of female staff are doctors or dentists, ie only 5.4% of total workforce are female doctors or dentists.

41% of Chief Executives are women.

81% of non-medical staff are women.

## Alison Wolf and the XX Factor

Alison Margaret Wolf, Baroness Wolf of Dulwich CBE, is a British economist, and the Sir Roy Griffiths Professor of Public Sector Management at King’s College London, see:

In her book “The XX Factor: How Working Women Are Creating A New Society” (Profile Books 2013), Alison Wolf writes that women are split into two groups: one group sacrificing family for rapid professional advancements, while the other group of women opts for having children at a young age, and remain in low level positions. As a result, inequality is growing faster among women than among men, and low status and low paid jobs are predominantly done by women:

• 97% of secretaries are female
• 92% of registered nurses are female
• 89% of nursing, psychiatric and home health aides are female
• 90% of maids and housekeeping cleaners are female

## The fundamentals: what are the essential characteristics of “good employment”?

• Good work: is stable and safe, allows individual control, is flexible, gives opportunities, promotes wellbeing, reintegrates sick or disabled people if possible.
• Good workplaces: have visible senior leadership and well trained managers, enable staff engagement, empower employees to care for their own health

## Good news for medicine, less good news for academic medicine

Generally we have achieved a good situation regarding gender equality in medicine. We have achieved meritocracy, and their are no reports providing evidence for systematic barriers against women’s professional advancement. Both intake and retention for women in medicine is high, and the pay scales are the same.

A study (Royal College of Physicians (RCP) Working Party 2009), investigated the female share of Consultants (= established Senior Medical Professionals in the UK), and showed the ratio of women is highest (38% – 49%) in “more plan-able” and “more people oriented” specializations such as general practice or paediatrics, while women’s share is lowest (8% – 23%) in “more technology oriented” and “more unpredictable” specializations such as anaesthetics or surgical specializations.

There is far less progress in academic medicine, and cultural stereotypes and bias remain, see:

Women’s advance into top leadership positions suffers from “cultural” prejudices, e.g. prejudices that women too kind, too caring, not logical or strong enough, or otherwise unsuited to lead.

Prominent leadership roles need investment in the “extras”, leads leadership dimension in each speciality, and requires career single-mindedness.

Prominent medical leadership requires investment of time “over and above” the ordinary duties, requires professional “stewardship contributions”.

The top 200 leadership positions will naturally go to those who pursue their career goals with a high degree of single-mindedness.

Women choosing the route towards prominent leadership roles need encouragement and support, they need:

• role models
• mentors, and

## Role models: Prominent women leaders in UK medicine

• Una O’Brien, Permanent Secretary, Department of Health
• Professor Dame Sally Davies, Chief Medical Officer
• Dame Julie Moore, CEO, University Hospitals Birmingham, NHS FT
• Claire Murdoch, CEO, Central and NW London NHS Foundation Trust
• Professor Jane Dacre, PRC Physicans
• Clare Marx CBE, PRC Surgeons
• Dr Suzy Lishman, PRC Pathologists
• Dr Maureen Baker, Chair, RC General Practitioners

## Need to debunk leadership myths

Its important not to fall into the traps of common leadership myths, e.g. that leadership is inborn, that leadership is that of a lone genius, that they must inspire others to follow their vision, the leadership requires formal authority, or that all leaders have common personality features.

We need to avoid similar leadership myths in medicine, e.g. that men naturally make better leaders.

## Dame Carol Black: From a shoe-making village in decline to Government Advisor

Dame Carol Black is born in the shoe-making village of Barwell, Leicestershire, went to Grammar School in Market Bosworth, were she became Head Girl, despite her working class background.

Dame Carol Black studied first History, then Medical Social Work and finally Medicine at the University of Bristol, specialized in Rheumatology research, focusing on Scleroderma. Later advanced to Medical Director, Royal Free Hospital, President of the Royal College of Physicians, Chairman of the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges, Chair of the Nuffield Trust on Health Policy, then advising Government as National Director for Health and Work, and now Principal of Newnham College, Cambridge.

A major step was Dame Carol Black’s advancement to Medical Director of the Royal Free Hospital, since this meant not just responsibility for an institution or a group or a department, but also responsibility for the health of a population.

### Leading the Royal College of Physicians

The Royal College of Physicians was founded by Royal Charter by Henry VIII on 23 September 1518 with the aim to promote the highest standards in medicine.

The skills required were: understanding a wide landscape, consensual leadership, standing ground when necessary, negotiating with Whitehall (= British Government) and building trust.

### Chairing all the Medical Royal Colleges – The Academy, 2006-2009

Dame Carol Black from 2006-2009 chaired this group of 21 independent organizations. As Chair, Dame Carol Black had no executive powers, needed to lead by persuasion and with consensus.

Dame Carol Black shared several of her experiences advising Government and highest ranking Government officials and Ministers.

Key was to become valuable in the eyes of Government officials by giving independent advice based on scientific evidence, in combination with remaining totally unpolitical.

Dame Carol Black became a champion for the “cause” of health and work, and kept totally out of politics, never revealing any political views or opinion, and wrote three major reports.

## The Confidence Code – forget perfection…Striving for perfection can waste women’s time, and hold back the best from reaching the top

Perfectionism and lack of confidence is large a female issue, see Katty Kay and Claire Shipman: The Confidence Code – the science and art of self-assurance, and what women should know.

Women tend to be held back by striving for perfection, while men tend to take more risks. Striving for perfection can waste women’s time, and hold back the best from reaching the top.

## Women in healthcare, Women and careers, women in scientific careers

The issue of Women in Scientific Careers was examined in the “Science and Technology Committee – Sixth Report – Women in scientific careers” by the British House of Commons Science and Technology Committee in February 2014, which can be downloaded here as a pdf file:
http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201314/cmselect/cmsctech/701/701.pdf

This UK House of Commons report finds some common traits which hold women back from reaching top leadership positions, including that women may perceive promotions as undesirable, wait until they meet all perceived criteria for promotion while men often take higher risks and may behave more speculatively, and women may think that “political” skills are required to reach the top.

## Finally, to reach top leadership positions, we need:

• self confidence
• aspiration
• risk taking
• resilience
• speaking out
• staying motivated after failure
• networks
• personal values aligned to organisational values

### Notes

Summary of Dame Carol Black’s keynote written by Gerhard Fasol

# Gender inequality in Japan: a case report of women doctors

## Kyoko Nomura, MD, MPH, PhD

### keynote talk presented at the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on women’s development and leadership, Tokyo, Monday 16 May 2016

by Kyoko Nomura, MD, MPH, PhD: Director, Support Center for women physicians and researchers, Associate professor, Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Teikyo University, School of Medicine, and Associate professor, Teikyo School of Public Health

In 2016, Japan’s elderly population, aged 65 years or older, comprises 26%, which is one-fourth of total population. By contrast, the younger generation, aged 0-14 years, comprises only 14%. Why so low?

Nowadays, the birth rate in Japan is estimated at 10.3 per 1,000 population, meaning that one woman bears only one child over her lifetime on average. The Japanese Health Ministry estimates that the nation’s total population will fall to 95.2 million by 2050. The aging of Japan is brought about by a combination of low birthrate and longevity.

Now we understand that Japan faces an aging society. Who is going to take care of this quickly growing aging population? Of course, younger people and women! This is the fundamental reason why women are encouraged to work as much as men to support the aging society.

However in Japan, our traditional gender roles that men should work outside and women be good house wives is strongly embedded in our mindset and hard to get rid of.

According to the Gender Gap Index by the World Economic Forum, Japan ranks at 105th near the bottom among 135 countries in terms of gender equality, mainly due to the underrepresentation of women in economic and political leadership.

In the medical area, Japan faces a physician shortage because the number of physicians per 1000 population is 2.2 which is lower than the average of OECD countries, 3.2 per 1000 population. This means, if you reside in a remote area and suppose you have a cancer, it is less likely to find a medical doctor who can treat your cancer in your neighborhood. Hence, Japan needs higher numbers of medical doctors to meet patients’ needs and definitely women medical doctors are expected to work more to take care of patients.

Actually the number of women entering into medicine is increasing and now constitutes 20% of total number of medical doctors. But this value is still low among OECD countries (actually it is lowest) and thus, we need to set up an urgent strategy to improve working conditions for women to work as much as male counterparts and pursue their potentials as well.

Dr. Nomura conducted a surveys of alumnae from 14 medical schools and found that 98% of men worked in full-time positions, but only 70% of women worked in full time positions, and that men work longer hours per week compared to women. In her another survey with colleagues, they also found that many women quit working at the time of life events like marriage and child birth or rearing; the retirement rate from full-time labour was 44％ in 5 yrs and rose up to 85％ in 10 yrs. To make matters worse, once they switched from full-time to part-time positions, only one third of these people will return to full-time work.

As a consequence, women are underrepresented in medicine. We have 80 medical schools in Japan and each has one dean but there are only 2 women and women constitute only 2.6% of full professors in medicine in Japan, which is far behind of USA (19%) and UK (16%).

Dr. Nomura and her colleagues have recently published an article to the international scientific journal “Surgery” in February 2016 and this epidemiological study based on 8,000 surgeons who are members of the Japan Surgical Society demonstrated that married men earn more than unmarried women after adjusting for covariates including working hours; as the number of children increases, annual income increases only for men but decreases for women.

In another study, she also demonstrated that the length of weekly domestic working hours is much longer for unmarried women than for married men and men do not work at home even if they have children (the average household working hours for men is only 3 hours per week).

These findings suggest that Japan’s stereotypical gender role, where men should work outside and women should be housewives still prevails even among highly qualified professionals like medical doctors.

One of the top scientific journal “Nature” recently published a special issue called “women in science”. This article states that Science remains institutionally sexist. Despite some progress, women scientists are still paid less, promoted less frequently, win fewer grants and are more likely to leave research than similarly qualified men.

Dr. Nomura has launched a women support center at her University in 2014 and provides various kinds of support to women researchers and physicians including

• to provide a nursery for children including sick children
• to provide social support like mentorship
• to provide various seminars and workshops on research skills
• to promote gender equality campaigns

With these efforts, Teikyo University has successfully increased the numbers and percentages of women faculty members. Dr. Nomura concluded by saying “in order to support women, environmental support at the workplace is not enough, but a combination of workplace support with educational intervention and career development works very well.”

## Kyoko Nomura, Teikyo University, Profile

Education:

MD, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, April 1987-March 1993

Master of Public Health: Quantitative Methods, Harvard School of Public Health, MA02115, USA, June 2001-June 2002

PhD: Dep. of Hygiene and Public Health, Teikyo University School of Medicine , April 1999-March 2003

Current position:

• Associate professor of Dep. of Hygiene and Public Health and Teikyo University School of Medicine, and Teikyo School of Public Health
• Director of Teikyo Support Center for women physicians and researchers

## Kyoko Nomura, Teikyo University, publications

Kyoko Nomura, List of publications (partly in Japanese language)

## Tokyo, Monday 16 May 2016, 9:00-11:00am

Location:
Hotel Chinzanso Tokyo (Satsuki Conference Room)
Sekiguchi 2-10-8, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8680, Japan

## Gerhard Fasol: Objectives of the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership

Gerhard Fasol
CEO , Eurotechnology Japan KK,
Board Director, GMO Cloud KK.
former faculty Cambridge University and
past Fellow, Trinity College Cambridge

## Dame Carol Black DBE FRCP FMedSci: Advancing women in healthcare

Dame Carol Black DBE FRCP FMedSci
Principal of Newnham College, Cambridge University.
She has held top positions in medicine and now holds high-level policy advisory positions on health and work in the United Kingdom

## Kyoko Nomura: Gender inequality in Japan: a case report of women doctors

Kyoko Nomura
Director, Support Center for women physicians and researchers,
Associate professor, Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Teikyo University, School of Medicine,
Associate professor, Teikyo School of Public Health

## Kiyoko Kato: The current state of female doctors in Japanese Obstetrics and Gynecology

Kiyoko Kato
Professor
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics,
Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University

# 「日本の産科婦人科における女性医師の現状」

## 加藤聖子、教授。九州大学大学院医学研究院。生殖病態生理学

### keynote given at the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on women’s development and leadership, Tokyo, Monday 16 May 2016

by: Kiyoko Kato, Professor
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Kyushu University

(Summary of Professor Kiyoko Kato’s keynote written by Gerhard Fasol)

## Improving medical care in obstetrics and gynecology requires gender equality – higher numbers and higher retention of women medical doctors

• 18% of medical doctors in Japan in 2008 are female, 82% are male. Back in 1976 only about 10% of medical doctors were female
• Medical school: in 1976 about 13% of medical students were women, this ratio increased up to about 35% peaking around the year 2000, and subsequently decreases slowly to around 32% in 2008.

Thus the ratio of women medical doctors are slowly increasing in Japan.

### The M-curve

About 90% medical doctors enter employment after graduation, remain employed at that level until about 35 years after graduation, when employment ratios slowly decrease due to retirement.

For women medical doctors, the employment ratio curve is M-shaped, with a minimum at about 76% employment approximately 11 years after graduation, at an age around 36 years, after this minimum many women medical doctors enter employment again, reaching similar employment ratio’s as men about 35 years after graduation.

62% of women medical doctors leaving their employment do this because of pregnancy, child birth or child care (80% in case of women younger than 45 years age).

### Obstetrics and gynecology medical doctors older than 40 years are predominantly men, while doctors younger than 40 years are predominantly women

For medical doctors aged 40 years and over, obstetrics and gynecology specialists are predominantly men: women obstetricians and gynecology make up less than 10% of doctors at higher ages.

This ratio is reversed for obstetricians and gynecologists younger than 40 years of age: women outnumber male doctors, below 30 years age, women doctors outnumber men nearly by a factor of 2.

There is a clear trend: older medical doctors in the obstetrics and gynecology field are predominantly male, while below the age of 40 years, women dominate by an increasing ratio.

## Kyushu University Hospital: Professor Kiyoko Kato is the one and only woman Full Professor of Medicine

Kyushu University has 135 female doctors, and 81.5% are on part-time contracts, only 18.5% have full time employment.

Ratio of women at different levels of the career pyramid:

• Part-time intern doctors: 36.3% are women
• Part-time doctors: 30.1% are women
• Full-time doctors: 8.6% are women
• Assistant Professors: 22 women vs 187 men (11.8% are women)
• Lecturers: 1 single woman vs 48 men (2%)
• Associate Professors: 1 single woman vs 31 men (3%)
• Full Professors: 1 single woman vs 24 men = Professor Kiyoko Kato (4%)

Only one single woman has achieved promotion into each of the higher ranks of Lecturer, Associate Professor and Full Professor, indicating that any women at all in these higher academic medical Professor ranks are rare exceptions rather than the rule (no mention here of still higher ranks, such as Hospital Directors, Deans, Heads of Department, or University President).

Professor Kiyoko Kato then explained her own career, where she spent time studying in the USA, gave birth to her first child in the USA, and then to her second child after returning to Japan. She had to cope with several challenges, e.g where one of the hospitals she worked was shut down. Finally Professor Kiyoko Kato was appointed Full Professor at Kyushu University Medical School.

## Professor Kiyoko Kato proposes that three issues need to be solved:

• improve the work environment during pregnancy and child bearing
• re-integration assistance: re-education and support after leave of absence
• remove obstacles to career improvements

### Improve the work environment during pregnancy and child bearing: the “Kyushu University Perinatal period cradle net project” 「周産期ゆりかごネットプロジェクト」

With support from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Kyushu University created the “Kyushu University Perinatal period cradle net project” (2013 – 2017). In Japanese 「周産期ゆりかごネットプロジェクト」, the website is here:
http://www.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp/yurikago/
and an overview of the project can be found here:
http://www.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp/yurikago/data.html

As the websites show, the “Kyushu University Perinatal period cradle net project” is carefully designed, structured and provides a depth of support for women medical doctors to give birth and pursue their career. Women doctors are given part-time positions in the out patient department after returning from leaves of absence.

So far seven women doctors have taken advantage of this program, and several have been assisted to return to full or part-time employment, two are still absent because of a second pregnancy. Part-time work in the outpatient department assisted them to return back to full time employment. Experiencing the hospital as a patient during birth also provided valuable experience.

### Re-integration assistance: re-education and support after leave of absence. The Kyushu University Kirameki Project.

To support re-integration after absence, Kyushu University created the “Kirameki Project” (Kirameki = glitter, shine). The Kirameki Projekt is described on the website here:
https://www.kyudai-kirameki.com/

2007-2009 the Kirameki Project helped female medical workers, female doctors, dentists and nurses to re-integrate after leave of absence.

From 2010 the program (“Kyushu University Hospital Kirameki Project”) was expanded to support continuation of the career for doctors, dental doctors, nurses for both men and women, because of delivery, child care, or disease / medical leave.

The aims of the project are to promote women doctors, dentists, and nurses who would have to resign their positions due to family reasons including marriage, children, husband’s job transfer etc, and to help them pursue their career after marriage.

Activities of the Kirameki Project are:

• survey the problems of women doctors, dentists and nurses after marriage
• recruit qualified but “hibernating” female medical personnel
• learning programs
• promote “high spirits”, encourage
• on the job training in the out-patient department

Structured programs of the Kirameki Project:

• Reestablishment: getting back to work program
• Suspension/leave: web based education
• Medical specialist: continuing specialist medical education
• Marriage, child-care: continuing education
• Residents, newcomer nurses: basic training
• Students: gender equality education

### Remove obstacles to career improvements

Assist women researchers after child birth and during child rearing: support attending international conferences, support system for hiring research assistants and technicians for research support.

Construct a support system:

• Return support after child-care leave: day nursery, team medical care including emergency mutual help system, flexible working time, e.g. 9-5 work day
• Improvement of career: system of supporting female researchers during child bearing and child rearing, grants for female researchers to support technicians

## Professor Kiyoko Kato’s wishes and expectations for female doctors

• responsibility and awareness
• gratitude to all who helped
• contribution to medical progress

### Notes

(Summary of Professor Kiyoko Kato’s keynote written by Gerhard Fasol)

# Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership – workshop objective

## Gerhard Fasol

### keynote given at the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on women’s development and leadership, Tokyo, 16 May 2016

by Gerhard Fasol PhD
CEO, Eurotechnology Japan KK,
Board Director, GMO Cloud KK.
former faculty Cambridge University, and Trinity College, and Tokyo University

## Objectives for the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s Development and Leadership

There are two immediate objectives for the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s Development and Leadership:

1. empower women leaders with global leverage
2. lets change mind sets

I am building the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum as global leadership platform honoring my great-grandfather, and the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s Development and Leadership is part if this initiative:

• drive innovation based on science and technology
• “there is no other forum for open discussions among leaders in Japan other than the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum” (said one of Japan’s top technology leaders, former Board Director of Japan’s largest Telecommunications Operator, former President of a large University, and former President of one of Japan’s most important technology organizations)

and as an additional bonus we will create new cooperations and new initiatives.

## Japanese women leaders forum – my actions so far

Several confidential preparations with Japanese Ministry officials and foreign Embassies in Japan.

One key conclusion from preparations: top priority and most difficult is to change mindsets in Japan regarding empowering women and gender issues

At the 8th Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on 18 February 2016 at the Embassy of Austria in Tokyo, honored by the participation of Her Imperial Highness, Princess Takamado, and Nobel Prize Winner Shuji Nakamura, invited Professor Kyoko Nomura to give the keynote “Gender inequality in Japan: a case report of women doctors“.

Next step is today’s (16 May 2016) “Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership”.

## How to change mindsets? Expand the solution space and add new dimensions!

The basic issues, empowering women and men to combine child care and professional development, work towards greater equality and improving decision making by implementing diversity of decision makers are similar all over the world, especially in Europe and Japan.

Learning solutions from each other, expands the dimensionality of the solution space.

## Expanding the solution space: learning about The Federal Ministry for Families and Youth

When we are looking for solutions to solve difficult problems, our search for solutions is limited by our experience, knowledge and imagination. Our search for solutions is in space of limited dimensionality. In many cases solutions exist outside the space we are considering.

Therefore to reach better solutions, its necessary to expand this solution space. Looking how other countries solve similar problems is one straight forward way to expand the dimensionality of the solution space, and that is where the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum aims to contribute.

As an example, many people in Japan do not know that most European countries have a Family Ministry (家族省), which represents Families at the Cabinet level. In fact, most Japanese people I have been discussing this issue with are perplexed by the possibility of a Family Ministry (家族省), and usually in response ask, what the tasks of a Family Ministry would be.

If your country does not have a Family Ministry, if you have never heard about a Family Ministry, its difficult to come up with the proposal to create a Family Ministry, and its difficult to imagine what a Family Ministry should do.

At the same time, in today’s internet age, its in theory only a click away to have a look at a Family Ministry: here is the webpage of Austria’s Family Ministry: Das Österreichische “Bundesministerium für Familien und Jugend” (The Austrian Federal Ministry for families and youth, オーストリア連邦家族・青年省)

And here is the current Austrian Minister for Family and Youth, Dr. Sophie Karmasin. 49 years old, with two children, Dr Sophie Karmasin has achieved a Doctorate in Psychology on “consumer behavior in the health market”, from 1993 to 2013, for 13 years she has pursued a very successful career in industry, most recently as Managing Director/CEO of a major market research company, before becoming party independent Minister of Family and Youth. She is not affiliated with any political party, but independent politician since 2013.

## Expanding the solution space: wouldn’t it be better to have at least one woman on a committee promoting women’s empowerment?

Compare Family and Youth Minister Dr Sophie Karmasin with the all-male “woman act.” committee promoting women’s equality in Japan’s Kanagawa Prefecture, wouldn’t it be better to have at least one woman on a committee promoting women? But unless you are familiar on how this is done in other countries, your solution space is limited to what you know.

## Why did today’s Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership happen? Because of Trinity College Cambridge

At a recent event of Trinity College Cambridge in Hong Kong, I met with Dame Carol Black, and our meeting led to today’s Forum.

Trinity College was founded By King Henry VIII in 1546 by combining the two older colleges King’s Hall and Michael House and seven Hostels. Sir Isaac Newton worked at Trinity College and about 32 Nobel Prize winners are or were members of Trinity College. Trinity College is part of the University of Cambridge

More about Trinity College Cambridge, for example on the website of our Trinity in Japan Society.

## Why Ludwig Boltzmann Forum? Who is Ludwig Boltzmann?

Ludwig Boltzmann is one of the world’s most important physicists and we use his results and tools every day. Here are some examples of his work:

• How we measure temperature (Kelvin, Celsius) is directly linked to Boltzmann’s constant k, especially after the new definitions of the SI International System of measurement units
• S = k log W, linking macroscopic entropy to the microscopic statistics of molecules, and linking statistical mechanics with measuring information, and the arrow of time
• Boltzmann transport equations are used to design jet engines and aircraft and in semiconductor physics and many other areas
• philosophy of nature
• and much much more….

I am developing the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum a global leadership platform in honor of my great-grandfather.

## Ludwig Boltzmann and women’s development and leadership

1872 Ludwig Boltzmann met Henriette von Aigentler (my great-grandmother), who was refused permission to unofficially audit lectures at Graz University, where Ludwig Boltzmann later became University President. Ludwig Boltzmann advised her to appeal, in 1874 Henriette passed the exam as high-school teacher, and on 17 July 1876, Ludwig Boltzmann and Henriette von Aigentler married.

One of Ludwig Boltzmann’s students is Lise Meitner (November 1878 – 27 October 1968). She was only the second woman to be awarded a PhD in Physics from the University of Vienna. Later she was part of the team that discovered nuclear fission, Otto Hahn was awarded the Nobel Prize for this work. Element No. 109, Meitnerium, is named after Lise Meitner.

## Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership – outlook and next steps

• Lets build the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on women’s development and leadership together
• Lets change mind sets
• Lets build the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum into a global leadership platform based on science and logic
• lets expand the solution space for important problems, and work towards implementing these solutions

### Notes

Summary written by Gerhard Fasol

## 8th Ludwig Boltzmann Forum 2016 – Program

Thursday 18 February 2016, Embassy of Austria in Tokyo

## Gerhard Fasol: Ludwig Boltzmann

Gerhard Fasol
CEO , Eurotechnology Japan KK,
Board Director, GMO Cloud KK.
former faculty Cambridge University and
past Fellow, Trinity College Cambridge

## Shuji Nakamura: The invention of high efficiency blue LED and its impact on promoting innovation in Japan, and legal aspects

Shuji Nakamura
Nobel Prize in Physics 2014,
Professor, University of California, Santa Barbara
Co-Founder of Soraa

## Michinari Hamaguchi: Creativity and human resource development. What we learn from Nagoya University’s Nobel Prize Winners and women researchers

Michinari Hamaguchi
President, Japan Science and Technology Agency and
President emeritus, Nagoya University

## Gerhard Fasol: Entropy and information and Ludwig Boltzmann

Gerhard Fasol
CEO , Eurotechnology Japan KK,
Board Director, GMO Cloud KK.
former faculty Cambridge University and
past Fellow, Trinity College Cambridge

## Kyoko Nomura: Gender inequality in Japan: a case report of women doctors

Kyoko Nomura
Director, Support Center for women physicians and researchers,
Associate professor, Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Teikyo University, School of Medicine,
Associate professor, Teikyo School of Public Health

## Makoto Suematsu: AMED: Mission and Perspectives to fast-track medical R&D

Makoto Suematsu
President, Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development AMED

# Ludwig Boltzmann’s life – an overview

## We use Ludwig Boltzmann’s results and tools every day

Ludwig Boltzmann was born 20 February 1844

We use Ludwig Boltzmann’s results every day. Among Ludwig Boltzmann’s results and tools:

• Unit of temperature, definition of Kelvin, Celsius directly linked to Boltzmann constant
• S = k log W – linking macroscopic entropy to statistics of molecules. Also appears in information science.
• Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law
• Boltzmann transport equations
• Philosophy of nature
• and much more

Ludwig Boltzmann was proposed several times  for the Nobel Prize:

• 1903
• 1905
• three times in 1906

however Ludwig Boltzmann died on September 5, 1906, in Duino, Italy. On February 20, 2014, Ludwig Boltzmann’s 170th birthday, a commemorative plaque was unveiled in a ceremony in the building where he passed away, on the same day we held the 6th Ludwig Boltzmann Forum in Tokyo.

## Ludwig Boltzmann’s life – an outline

Ludwig Boltzmann was born on 20 February 1844.

He graduated from High School, passing the Austrian High School examination “Matura” in 1863, at the age of 19 years.

Two years later, in 1865, Ludwig Boltzmann published his first scientific publication at the age of 21:

• “Über die Bewegung der Elektrizität in krummen Flächen” (Electricity on curved surfaces), Wien. Ber. 52, p214-221 (1865).

About 20% of Ludwig Boltzmann’s work was about electro-magnetism, Maxwell had developed the Maxwell’s equations just a few years earlier, 1861-1962. (In Japan’s context, Tokyo Dentou KK received the license to build the first electricity generation and distribution system in Tokyo on February 15, 1883, it was the time when electrical lighting was starting to replace gas lighting, and in parallel scientific work on electricity and magnetism advanced).

Ludwig Boltzmann built mechanical models to understand, visualize and teach Maxwell’s equations. These models have recently been rebuilt and can be seen for example at the University of Graz.

Ludwig Boltzmann’s teachers include:

• Josef Loschmidt:
• proposed structures for 300 chemical compounds, including benzene
• determined the number of gas molecules in a given volume
• the Loschmidt constant is named after Josef Loschmidt
• Jozef Stefan
• created the Stefan-Boltzmann Radiation Law together with Ludwig Boltzmann
• was the first to determine the temperature of the sun

## Ludwig Boltzmann: timeline

• 1865, age 21: first publication: “Electricity on curved surfaces”
• 1867-1869, age 23-25: Privat-Dozent
• 1869, age 25: Full Professor in Graz “Mathematical Physics”
• 1873, age 29: Full Professor in Wien “Mathematics”
• 1875, age 31: declined offer of Professorship in Zurich and Freiburg
• 1876, age 32: marriage, Full Professor Graz, Head of Physics Institute
• 1887-1888, age 43-44: Rektor (President) University Graz
• 1888, age 44: March: offered Professorship in Berlin, June: declined Professorship
• 1890, age 46: Professor in München (students include the later First President of the University of Osaka, Hantaro)
• 1894, age 50: Professor in Wien
• 1900-1902, age 56-58: Professor of Theoretical Physics in Leipzig
• 1902, age 58: Professor in Wien
• September 5, 1906, age 62, died in Duino, Italy

Ludwig Boltzmann visited the USA three times:

• 1899
• 1904
• 1905

## Ludwig Boltzmann’s support for women professionals and scientists

1872 Ludwig Boltzmann met Henriette von Aigentler. She was refused permission to unofficially audit lectures at Graz University.
Ludwig Boltzmann advised her to appeal, and in 1874 Henriette passes the exam as high-school teacher.
On July 17, 1876, Ludwig Boltzmann and Henriette von Aigentler marry. They have four children:

• 1880: Henriette
• 1881: Arthur Ludwig (my grand-father)
• 1891: Else
• 1884: Ida

### Lise Meitner (Nov 1878 – 27 October 1968)

Ludwig Boltzmann’s student Lise Meitner was later part of the team that discovered nuclear fission, for which Otto Hahn was awarded the Nobel Prize.

Lise Meitner was the 2nd woman ever to earn a Doctorate in Physics from the University of Vienna.

Element 109 is named Meitnerium to honor Lise Meitner.

### Nagaoka Hantaro, Ludwig Boltzmann’s pupil in München (1892-1893)

Nagaoka Hantaro (1865-1950) was Ludwig Boltzmann’s pupil in München around 1892-1893.

Nagaoka Hantaro was Professor at the University of Tokyo 1901-1925, and among his pupils was Hideki Yukawa.

1931-1934, Nagaoka Hantaro was the first President of the University of Osaka.

### Ludwig Boltzmann as angel investor: supported aviation

Ludwig Boltzmann was a frequent traveler, usually by train, and to the USA by ship, so he understood the market for transportation, and supported several ventures to develop aircraft. He wrote an article “Über Luftschifffahrt” in 1894. He supported:

• Otto Lilienthal, Berlin
• Wilhelm Kreis, Wien
• Hiram S Maxim, an American engineer in the UK

Ludwig Boltzmann countered the view that engines heavier than air cannot fly, and argued for funding of applied research.

Ludwig Boltzmann traveled widely, was in intense scientific interaction with most major scientists of his time, both at conferences, as well as by exchanging letters.

Ludwig Boltzmann moved frequently between positions, motivated both by increased responsibilities, close interaction with colleagues, e.g. Ostwald in Leipzig, and also in the interest of increasing his income for the benefit of his family.

So much for a short overview of Ludwig Boltzmann’s life as an introduction to the 8th Ludwig Boltzmann Forum in Tokyo, to illustrate Ludwig Boltzmann’s wide range of interests, his frequent travels, and his actions beyond his fields of Physics, Philosophy and Mathematics.

# Shuji Nakamura, Nobel Prize in Physics 2014, Professor, University of California, Santa Barbara and Co-founder of Soraa

## Shuji Nakamura: bottom-up innovation, not top-down innovation.

### keynote talk given at the 8th Ludwig Boltzmann Forum at the Embassy of Austria, Tokyo, Thursday 18 February 2016

by Shuji Nakamura, Nobel Prize in Physics 2014, Professor, University of California, Santa Barbara and Co-founder of Soraa

(summary of Shuji Nakamura’s talk written by Gerhard Fasol)

Shuji Nakamura is born on 22 May 1954 in Ohku, part of the village Yotsuhamamura (四ツ浜村, 4290 inhabitants) (日本 愛媛県西宇和郡四ツ浜村大久) on the Western side of Shikoku Island (四国, 4.2 million inhabitants), went to Elementary School and High School in Ozu (大洲), not far away, also on the Western side of Shikoku, studied at Tokushima University, which at that time did not have a Physics Department (Shuji Nakamura later won the Nobel Prize in Physics!), and then entered Nichia Chemical Industries in 1979 after graduating from the University of Tokushima. Nichia Chemical Industries is located in Anan, about 20 km south of Tokushima.

Until moving to the University of California in Santa Barbara, Shuji Nakamura spent his whole life, education, University, and professional work as researcher at Nichia entirely on the Island of Shikoku, with no connection to Tokyo, to Government, or Japan’s establishment, or research establishment.

Shuji Nakamura’s lack of connections to Japan’s establishment, industrial establishment, academic establishment or government establishment maybe at the origin of the many misunderstandings which have developed between Shuji Nakamura and Japan’s media, and some of Japan’s establishment.

Thus Shuji Nakamura is the perfect example of bottom-up innovation. Not planned from the top. Therefore maybe its hard for people at the top to grasp and accept.

Shuji Nakamura and his inventions have huge impact on the world, it is hard for Government and main stream media to accept, that Shuji Nakamura does not fit at all into planned top-down innovation, but has created his own independent path.

The contrast between Shuji Nakamura’s bottom-up innovation – recognized and rewarded by the Nobel Prize in Physics – and the official views of top-down innovation seems to have led to many misunderstandings. Shuji Nakamura is making much effort, including today’s talk at the 8th Ludwig Boltzmann Forum, to clear up these misunderstandings.

## Invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes vs. development of manufacturing technologies

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the Nobel Prize of Physics 2014 to Isamu Akasaki (1/3), Hiroshi Amano (1/3) and Shuji Nakamura (1/3), “for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources“.

In an interview for the Japanese Mainichi-Shinbun, the Chairman of the Nobel Prize Committee in Physics, Professor Per Delsing summarized the key discoveries of each Nobel Laureate from the point of view of the Nobel Prize Committee in Physics:

• Isamu Akasaki: High quality GaN with AlN buffer
• Hiroshi Amano: Demonstration of GaN pn junction
• Shuji Nakamura: Many contributions to achieve a practical level of high efficient blue LEDs

The discovery of blue GaN LEDs is a discovery in the field of Physics achieved by three people, their contributions are:

• Isamu Akasaki and Hiroshi Amano
1. AlN buffer (to grow AlN of sufficient quality on a substrate of a different material)
2. p-GaN by electron beam irradiation
3. realization of GaN pn homo-junction
• Shuji Nakamura
1. GaN buffer (to grow GaN of sufficient quality on a substrate of a different material)
2. p-GaN by thermal annealing and the theoretical clarification of the mechanism for p-type conductivity
3. the invention of InGaN-based high brightness double-heterostructure blue LEDs (the Nobel Prize was given to the invention of this LED)

## The Nobel Prize Committee awarded the Nobel Prize to Shuji Nakamura for many contributions and inventions to achieve a practical level of high efficient blue LEDs

In his will, Alfred Nobel writes:

“The whole of my remaining realizable estate shall be dealt with in the following way: the capital, invested in safe securities by my executors, shall constitute a fund, the interest on which shall be annually distributed in the form of prizes to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind. The said interest shall be divided into five equal parts, which shall be apportioned as follows: one part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery or invention within the field of physics;…”

It is perfectly clear from Alfred Nobel’s will, the Nobel Prize Committee awards Nobel Prizes in Physics for “the most important discoveries or inventions within the field of physics” – not for the development of manufacturing technologies.

## Why is it that Japan’s major Government Organizations and media present a narrative of the LED invention which is opposite to the views of the Nobel Prize Committee and the scientific community outside Japan?

Shuji Nakamura expresses his frustration that the clear explanations of the Nobel Prize Committee’s reasons are not understood by Japanese Media, and many others.

It appears to Shuji Nakamura that there seems to be a widespread misunderstanding of who invented what, and who was awarded the Nobel Prize for what.

Japanese media (Yomiuri Shinbun and others), NHK (e.g. in the Science ZERO program), Japan’s New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization NEDO in their publications, Japan’s Science and Technology Agency JST, Japan’s Science Council JSC, Japan’s Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, all present a picture of the LED inventions which is opposite to the clear statements by the Nobel Prize Committee.

They all write that Professor Akasaka and Amano developed the blue LED in 1989 at Nagoya University, while Shuji Nakamura developed the manufacturing technology in 1993. Such a narrative fits well with a top-down picture, where Professors at Nagoya University make the scientific breakthrough, which is then transferred to industry, where an industrial researcher develops the manufacturing applications, which then the company commercializes.

This top-down narrative would fit well the top-down view of innovation, however this is not how the breakthrough invention of GaN LEDs and lasers, which are now leading to the global lighting revolution actually happened.

## Shuji Nakamura explains the essential steps leading to the invention and development of high intensity GaN LEDs

### Professor Akasaka and Amano developed homo-junction LEDs, which are very inefficient and show very dim light emission

Professors Akasaki and Amano developed methods to produced n-type and p-type GaN and grew homo-junction GaN LEDs, which emit light, but which are highly inefficient, and the light emission is very dim. Still, this discovery was a crucial step forward, and Akasaka and Amano were awarded shares of the Nobel Prize for these important developments.

For tunable colors, high output power an efficient device structure, and many other developments were necessary, which Shuji Nakamura achieved.

A crucial step forward was the development of heterostructure LEDs, where electrons and holes are confined in quantum wells formed by hetero-junctions, yielding higher efficiencies. Double heterostructures were invented by Z I Alferov and H Kroemer, who were awarded shares of the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics for these and other inventions.

A series of inventions led to efficient blue LEDs:

• p-type GaN activated by electron beam irradiation (Akasaki & Amano, 1989)
• AlN buffer (Akasaki & Amano, 1985)
• GaN buffer (Nakamura, 1991)
• InGaN emitting active layer (Nakamura and Mukai, 1992)
• p-type GaN activated by thermal annealing. Hydrogen passivation was clarified as the origin of hole compensation (Nakamura at al, 1992)

### Shuji Nakamura’s development of hydrogen free annealing of p-type GaN and the development of InGaN heterostructure lead to the breakthrough development of high brightness InGaN LEDs for blue emission

A particularly important discovery by Shuji Nakamura in 1992 was to find out why p-type GaN could not be efficiently produced previous to this invention. Shuji Nakamura found out that previous researchers had all annealed p-type GaN in hydrogen (H+) atmosphere, which passivated the p-GaN, making it useless for electronic devices.

Shuji Nakamura invented the method to anneal p-type GaN in a hydrogen-free atmosphere which for the first time allowed the production of proper p-type GaN layers.

This in 1994, Shuji Nakamura could report the first high brightness InGaN LEDs for blue emission, S. Nakamura et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, (1994) 1687-1689.

### It is a misunderstanding to emphasize only Shuji Nakamura’s developments of manufacturing technologies, and to forget about Shuji Nakamura’s many inventions in the field of physics for which he was awarded his share in the Nobel Prize in Physics

Had Shuji Nakamura developed “only” manufacturing techniques, Shuji Nakamura would certainly not have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. Shuji Nakamura was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for a long string of discoveries and developments in the field of physics, in addition to developing a wide range of manufacturing technologies as well, such as the two-flow MOCVD equipment.

## What is an LED? How to produce energy efficient white light?

A light emitting diode (LED) produces light of a single color corresponding to the energy difference of electrons and holes recombining across the bandgap in a semiconductor LED device.

By choosing different materials, LEDs emitting light of different colors can be produced. To produce white light, the light emitted by several different LEDs of different color can be combined, e.g. blue + yellow, or blue + yellow + red.

Another option to produce white light is to coat a blue light emitting LED with phosphor, where the phosphor converts part of the blue light into yellow light. The remaining blue light combined with the yellow light emitted by the phosphor appears white to the human eye.

Conventional white LEDs, consisting of blue LEDs covered by phosphor, show strong blue light emission, and disrupt the human circadian cycle and possibly suppresses melatonin (see: Narusawa et al, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43 (2010) 354002).

Most PCs, laptop, smartphone and tablet liquid crystal displays use such white LEDs for the background lighting, cause eye fatigue, and thus filters can be used to cut the blue light.

Apple has acknowledged the dangers of strong blue light emission, and has developed methods to reduce blue light emission. The blue “spike” in the white light output from electronic devices can reduced the production of the sleep inducing melatonin hormone, and has been linked to health disorders and even cancer.

## What is an LED? How to produce energy efficient white light?

Applications for InGaN based LEDs:

• solid state lighting
• decorative lighting
• automobile lighting
• displays (e.g. for PCs, TV, tablets, smartphones
• agriculture:
• plant factories using blue/red LEDs in a clean room achieves growth rates 2.5 – 5 times higher than in nature
• achieve 50%-90% higher yields
• water consumption 1% compared to outside
• indoor lighting

### Energy savings impact: save 60 nuclear power stations globally until 2020

LEDs are 4 times as energy efficient as fluorescent tubes, and about 20 times as efficient as incandescent bulbs:

• oil lamp: 0.1 lumen/Watt
• incandescent light bulb: 16 lumen/Watt
• fluorescent lamp: 70 lumen/Watt
• LED lamp: 300 lumen/Watt

Converting traditional lighting to LED lighting, we can reduce global energy consumption corresponding by an amount corresponding to 60 nuclear power stations by 2020:

• Japan could save 7 nuclear power plants by converting lighting to LEDs
• Germany could save 3 nuclear power plants
• USA could save 19 nuclear power plants
• China could save 17 nuclear power plants
• India could save 9 nuclear power plants

## Nichia vs Nakamura lawsuits

Time line:

• 1993 Nakamura et al: first high efficiency blue InGaN LED was invented, Nobel Prize in Physics
• 1995 Nakamura et al: first violet InGaN laser diode was invented
• 1999 Nichia Chemical Industries: first products of violet InGaN laser diode
• 2000 Shuji Nakamura quits Nichia Chemical Industries and moves to University of California Santa Barbara
• 2000 Nichia Chemical Industries starts the lawsuit against Nakamura alleging infringements of trade secrets in USA
• 2001 Nakamura starts the counter lawsuit against Nichia Chemical Industries using the patent law article No. 35
• 2002 Nakamura wins the lawsuit regarding trade secrets in the USA against Nichia
• 2004 Nakamura wins wins US\$ 200 million against Nichia as a reasonable compensation fee at Tokyo District Court
• 2005 Nakamura settlement by winning US\$ 8 million with Nichia as a reasonable compensation fee at Tokyo High Court
• 2014 Nakamura wins Nobel Prize in Physics

## Japan’s vs US judicial system – Shuji Nakamura’s experiences

1. No discovery process in Japan: no need to submit documents or evidence, no depositions
2. No discussions at court hearing; both lawyers submit statements and prepared documents to the judge without discussion
3. Ruling: ruling determined by how many people could benefit by ruling
4. Penalties: penalties are determined by precedence and earlier rulings. Punishments and penalties are generally much higher in the USA, thus much higher sanctions for breaking the laws
5. Judges’ salaries in Japan are determined by superiors, while in the USA the salary of each judge is guaranteed by the constitution
6. IP lawsuits tend to move to the USA, because USA includes discovery process and higher awards for the winners of lawsuits
7. No perjury in Japan. Harder to enforce truth of parties statements in Japan.
8. Libel or defamation are weakly sanctioned, fines/awards are relatively low and on the order of US\$ 10,000 in Japan.

## Key elements for success

• risk taking
• innovation and flexibility
• team diversity
• intellectual freedom – thinking differently
• hard work
• infrastructure and cultural support for innovation or failure