Gerhard Fasol: today’s agenda. Entropy, information and Ludwig Boltzmann – and Japan’s economic growth, 12th Ludwig Boltzmann Forum, 20 February 2020
Gerhard Fasol, CEO , Eurotechnology Japan KK. Guest Professor, Kyushu University, former faculty Cambridge University, and Trinity College, and Tokyo University
Purpose of the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum
- Leadership Forum based on logic, science and technology.
- Create impact and change
- Contribute to solutions of important issues which make a difference to our lives
- “Superstar leaders” as keynote speakers
- Increased economic growth from increasing international cooperation between Japan and Europe, eg in the fields of railways, sleep, genetics, 5G and 6G communications, in research and business
- Governance and management of companies – growth of companies must improve for economic growth and to pay for the costs of an aging society
- Research, development, and Universities are key for economic growth – they must improve to recover economic growth. We can learn from Ludwig Boltzmann
Some of Japan’s top issues and opportunities
- Japan’s economy stopped growing in 2000. A new business model is needed for Japan. Japan has many fantastic technologies, products, business models with big opportunities for global value creation.
- Aging society.
- University reform is urgently necessary in order to restart growth.
- Company management and supervision reform is urgently necessary. About 1/2 of TOPIX companies have market capitalization lower than book value, and too many Japanese companies have no growth and no profits since 2000, and no growth of market capitalization/company value since 2000.
Some results which might areas from today’s conference
- Safety is top priority for JR-East and sleep of managers and driving staff is a primary factor for safety and accident prevention. Today we have the leader of JR-East, and a top global leader in sleep science, maybe today’s conference can lead to cooperation, joint research or development with JR-East on sleep and safety.
- 5G and 6G communications will impact all areas of society, how can society influence the development of 5G and 6G services and ecosystems. Society and 5G/6G ecosystems evolve in sync.
- We are at the start of a novel virus crisis, how will an epidemic affect mobility, communications, sleep, medicine.
Family background: Boltzmann & Chiari
Johann Baptist Chiari (1817-1854)
Gynecologist & Obstetrician 産婦人科医
Professor in Prag and Vienna
- Chiari-Frommel Syndrome (hyperprolactinaemia): a rare condition where galactorrhea and amenorrhea continues for an abnormal length of time after birth
- Teacher of Ignaz Semmelweis (discovered cause and cure for puerperal fever, “childbed fever”)
- “Klinik der Geburtshilfe und Gynäkologie” First text book to present Ignaz Semmelweis work on hygiene at birth
Johann Baptist Chiari in the Official History of Vienna:
Ottokar Chiari (1853-1918)
Ear Nose and Throat specialist, laryngologist, rhino laryngologist 耳鼻咽喉専門医
Professor and Director of the Ortorhinolaryngological University Clinic at Vienna University. Ottokar Chiari performed the first transbronchial operation, introducing minimal-invasive surgery.
In 1912 he introduced the transethmoid trans-sphenoid operation.
He founded the Ear-Nose-Throat Clinic (Ortorhinolaryngological University Clinic) at the University of Vienna, the first Ear-Nose-Throat (Ortorhinolaryngological University Clinic) worldwide, of which he was appointed Director (Leiter der Laryngoloischen Abteilung der Allgemeinen Krankenhauses) from 1900 and Chair Professor (ordentlicher Professor) from 1912.
Ottokar Chiari was appointed the personal medical doctor of Emperor Franz-Joseph, and was elevated to the status of “Freiherr” in 1917.
Ottokar Chiari (Ottokar Freiherr von Chiari) is the son of Johann Baptist Chiari. His daughter Paul Chiari married the son of Ludwig Boltzmann, and is my (Gerhard Fasol’s) grandmother.
Ottokar Chiari in the Official History of Vienna
Since 23 March 1932, Chiarigasse in Wien-Favoriten is named after Ottokar Freiherr von Chiari, see Vienna’s official history: https://www.geschichtewiki.wien.gv.at/Chiarigasse
Hans Chiari (1851-1916)
University of Strasbourg: Professor and University President
Hans Chiari in the official History of Vienna https://www.geschichtewiki.wien.gv.at/Hans_Chiari
Karl Chiari (1912-1982)
Karl Chiari is the son of Richard Chiari (1882-1929), Director of the Linz General Hospital (Allgemeines Krankenhaus Linz). Karl Chiari is the founder of orthopedics in Vienna, he was the first head of the new Department of Orthopaedics at the University Hospital Vienna.
Karl Chiari pioneered many new modern therapies and surgery methods in the field of Orthopaedics. He pioneered therapies and treatments in the fields of Scoliosis (a medical condition where a patient’s spine is curved sideways), bone tumors, orthopaedic rheumatology, knee entroprothetic, hip endoprotethic, and operations to correct hip dysplasia.
In 1967, Karl Chiari became Chair Professor (ordentlicher Professor), and since 1962 he was the first Director of the Orthopaedic Clinic at the Vienna University Hospital., which spun out from the 1. Surgical University Clinic at the University of Vienna. He was Director of the Orthopaedic Clinic for 20 years.
Today at the Medical University Vienna (MedUni Wien) the Laboratory for Orthopaedic Biology is named Karl Chiari Lab for Ortopaedic Bilogy in honor of Karl Chiari, https://www.meduniwien.ac.at/hp/orthopaedie/forschung/karl-chiari-lab-for-orthopaedic-biology/mission-statement/
As children we used to ski together with Karl Chiari’s family, and at the age of 6 years I (Gerhard Fasol) broke my leg while skiing together with Karl Chiari and his children. Back in the farm house pension where we all stayed, Karl Chiari adjusted my broken bones with his hands, and put my legs in plaster, which he always had with him. Later in his Clinic in Vienna, he x-rayed my broken leg, made more adjustments, put on a proper longer time plaster, and oversaw my leg until it was properly healed.
More about Karl Chiari:
official history of Vienna: https://www.geschichtewiki.wien.gv.at/Karl_Chiari_(Orthopäde)
Ludwig Boltzmann 20 February 1844 – 5 September 1906
- Venture investor (air planes)
The Ludwig Boltzmann Forum is a platform of leaders driving improvements based on logic and science
- inspire leaders by Ludwig Boltzmann’s example
- honesty, humility
- asking profound questions and working towards the answers using logic, mathematics, science
- understand nature and systems
Ludwig Boltzmann in the official history of Vienna https://www.geschichtewiki.wien.gv.at/Ludwig_Boltzmann
We use Ludwig Boltzmann’s results and tools every day
- S = k log W – linking macroscopic entropy to statistics of molecules > information theory: Shannon entropy
- Boltzmann transport equations > optimal transport
- Definition of Kelvin, Celsius directly linked to Boltzmann constant
- Stefan-Boltzmann radiation law
- statistical mechanics and Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics
- Philosophy of nature: is the space we live in curved? How can we determine the curvature of our space? Using philosophy – or using the tools of physics and mathematics?
Ludwig Boltzmann was several times proposed for the Nobel Prize 1903, 1905 and three times in 1906 – the year he passed away.
Ludwig Boltzmann started young
1865, at the of age of 21 years he published his first scientific work: “Über die Bewegung der Elektrizität in krummen Flächen” (Electricity on curved surfaces).
About 20% of Boltzmann’s publications were in the field of electro-magnetism. 1861-1862 James Clerk Maxwell had created the foundations of modern electro-magnetism with Maxwell’s equations.
Linking the initially macroscopic 2nd law of thermodynamics to the statistical mechanics of atoms and molecules governed by Newton’s laws
1866 at the age of 22 years Ludwig Boltzmann published one of his most important works in a field he created and worked on for all his life: “Über die mechanische Bedeutung des zweiten Hauptsatzes der Wärmetheorie” (About the mechanical meaning of the second law of thermodynamics).
As a reminder: the 2nd law of thermodynamics says that an isolated system spontaneously evolves to the state of greatest entropy. The 2nd law of thermodynamics was first formulated by Sadi Carnot in 1824 as part of the efforts to optimize steam engines and is also known as Carnot’s theorem.
Boltzmann linked this initially macroscopic law to the statistical mechanics of atoms and molecules governed by Newton’s laws at a time when the existence of atoms was not yet generally accepted.
Boltzmann’s dilemma: how can time-reversible Newton’s laws at the microscale lead to the time-irreversible 2nd law of thermodynamics
Newton laws govern the microscopic collisions and motion of atoms and molecules in gases and are completely time reversible. Processes we observe macroscopically, e.g. a gas escaping from a pressure vessel, are time irreversible. This dilemma, how Newton’s reversible laws governing the microscopic motion can lead to irreversible processes on the macroscopic scale, occupied Boltzmann’s mind and work his whole life long. Boltzmann’s answers depend on the realization that the 2nd law of thermodynamics cannot be explained by Newton’s laws of mechanics alone, but the mathematical tools of statistical mechanics are required, many of which Boltzmann created.
Boltzmann’s path through life: starting young – and global
- 1865 (age 21) first publication “Electricity on curved surfaces”
- 1867-1869 (age 23-25) Privat-Dozent (Associate Professor)
- 1869-1873 (age 25) Full Professor, Mathematical Physics, University of Graz
- 1873-1876 (age 29) Full Professor, Mathematics, University of Vienna
- 1875 (age 31) declined offer of Professorship in Zürich and Freiburg (Germany)
- 1876-1890 (age 32) marriage, Full Professor for Experimental Physics and Head of the Institute of Physics, University of Graz
- 1887-1888 (age 43-44) Rector (President), University Graz
- 1888 (age 44) March: Professor in Berlin, June: resigned from Professor position
- 1890 (age 46) Professor in München (one of his students was Nagaoka Hantaro, who later became the first President of Osaka University, and created a model of the atom)
- 1892 attended 300 year celebrations of Trinity College Dublin
- 1894 visit to Oxford University
- 1894-1990 (age 50) Professor, University of Vienna
- 1895 attending Naturforscherversammlung in Lübeck
- 20 June – 2 August 1889 (age 55) first trip to the USA: Clark University, Worcester MA, Boston, Montreal
- 1900-1902 (age 56) Professor of Theoretical Physics in Leipzig
- 1902-1906 (age 58) Professor of Theoretical Physics at University Vienna
- Trips to Göttingen, Kassel, Southport Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science and to Paris.
- 1903/1904 Vorlesungen über Naturphilosophie (Lectures on philosophy of nature)
- 21 August – 8 October 1904 second trip to the USA to attend St Louis World Fair and Congress “Physics for a new century”, Detroit, Chicago, Washington DC
- 11 June – 3 August 1905 third trip to the USA: Lectures at the University of California Berkeley and at Stanford University
What can we learn from Ludwig Boltzmann?
- Empower young people, recognize and support talent early
- LB published first scientific work at age 21
- Full Professor at 25
- Head of Department at 32
- President of University at 43
- Talent is not linear – talent is exponential
- Move around the world. Connect. Interact.
- Empower women (LB promoted many women)
- Don’t accept authority for authority’s sake
- Science/physics issues need to be treated with the methods of physics/science
- No dogmas
- Support entrepreneurs (LB supported airplane developers before airplanes existed)
Summary: understanding and learning from Ludwig Boltzmann
Boltzmann’s results are a big part of our understanding of the world and the universe
His mathematical tools are used every day by today’s engineers, bankers, IT people, physicists…
LB stood up for his ideas and conclusions and did not accept scientific authorities for authorities’ sake
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